Testimony from pulmonologist Martin Tobin dominated the ninth day of the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin as doctors commented to the jury on George Floyd’s ability to breathe. While under control
During his time, Tobin modified the effects fentanyil had on Floyd’s breathing before he lost consciousness and pushed back, claiming that his previous health condition had caused him to lose consciousness. Died
The defense argued throughout the trial that both Floyd’s drug use and underlying health conditions contributed to his death, while prosecutors accused Chauvin̵7;s knee dropping and the use of force on his neck cost him his death.
Tobin testified that Floyd died from low levels of oxygen, which he said damaged his brain and led to a reaction that caused his heart to stop beating.
Chauvin’s knee resting on the man’s neck was one of the “forces” Tobin said contributed to Floyd’s death.
According to the pool report, the jury paid close attention to doctors throughout the hours of testimony and saw that the notes were taken and a close listen to experts as he spoke.
Thursday’s trial also included testimony from a forensic toxicologist who examined Floyd’s blood and urine, as well as an emergency medicine doctor specializing in forensics.
The testimony provides more insight into the amount of drug found in Floyd’s system after his death, and additional expert opinion on Floyd’s death.
Floyd tried to breathe before he lost consciousness.
Tobin offered details of Floyd’s breathing during a seizure, noting the body movements he performed under Chauvin that doctors said were trying to breathe.
Tobin noted that photographs of the arrest showed Floyd appeared to push his knuckles and fingers against the ground and tires of a nearby police car as he was pinned to the road.
“For most people this doesn’t seem very important. But for physiologists this is especially important, ”said Tobin.
“This tells you he has used up all of his resources and now he’s literally trying to breathe with his fingers and knuckles,” the doctor testified. “It’s a terrible way to breathe. But it’s something you have to do when all else fails, ”he said.
Tobin also testified that in another photograph captured by the arrest, Chauvin had half his body weight on Floyd’s neck while holding him down. In the picture, Chauvin’s toes can be seen slightly off the ground as he kneels on Floyd, which is still pinned to the road.
Tobin estimates the action put 91.5 pounds “down” on Floyd’s neck. “Everything goes down to his knee,” he said.
While Tobin said during the cross examination that he had not personally weighed Chauvin or his device to get an estimate, doctors said he. “Get Reported Measurements”
He also cited the role fentanyl played in Floyd’s respiration during the seizure.
“If fentanyl affects and induces depression of the respiratory center, the respiratory center, that results in a decrease in the respiratory rate and shows that with fentanyl you expect a lower respiratory rate. 40 percent, ”Tobin said.
“So with fentanyl, his respiratory rate should drop at about 10, instead it is centered at 22,” Tobin said, adding that the evidence proves “there is no fentanyl on the affected vessels. His respiratory center “
The prosecution also attempted to dispel claims Floyd said “I can’t breathe” during his arrest, proving he can still breathe because he can speak.
Tobin said the claims were “misleading” and gave “a huge false sense of security”.
“Of course, while you are speaking, you are breathing. But it doesn’t tell you you’re going to breathe five seconds later, ”he said.
During Thursday’s hearing, Chovin’s defense attorney, Eric Nelson, raised questions about Tobin’s calculations based on his testimony, along with the prosecution.
“Now, in terms of the calculations you’ve made, do you agree that your calculations are theoretically correct?” Nelson asked Tobin.
“No, they’re not theoretical, I mean, they come from direct measurements, they come from thorough research,” Tobin said.
Drug levels in the body of Floyd after death.
Floyd’s drug use remained the theme in a second eyewitness testimony Thursday, coming from forensic toxicologist Daniel Isenschmid who analyzed Floyd’s blood and urine.
Isenschmid said in his testimony that fentanyl and methamphetamine were found in Floyd’s blood while morphine was detected in his urine. He also testified that suboxoneFound a prescription drug used to treat opioid addiction in his blood.
Floyd Courteney Ross’s ex-girlfriend Testified during the hearing last week She and Floyd both fight opioid abuse and try to help each other overcome their addiction.
The prosecution and defense have questioned Isenschmid about the amount of fentanyl and methamphetamine. Found in Floyd’s system on Thursday.
Isenschmid said Floyd’s body contains a certain amount of methamphetamine that “corresponds to the [a] Prescription medicine size “
“Would that be considered low levels of methamphetamine?” Prosecutors asked Isenschmid.
“Yes, very low,” he replied.
Isenschmid also testified on the fentanyl detected in Floyd’s blood while discussing the ratio of the drug to norfentanyl found in his system.
“So as the body gets rid of fentanyl, it breaks from fentanyl to norfentanyl,” Isenschmid said. And it’s one of the ways the body gets rid of fentanyl. “
“And you state that the amount of norfentanyin found in the hospital’s blood in this case is 5.6 nanograms per milliliter… how important is norfentanyin content?” The prosecutor asked.
Isenschmid said it showed that “some fentanyl is metabolized into norfentanyl.”
Isenschmid said more often in cases of fentanyl-related deaths, “We often see fentanyl without norfentanyl at all, because after acute fentanyl intoxication, the body doesn’t have time to break it down.”
The testimony may be helpful in litigation as it eliminates arguments by preventing drug use played a role in Floyd’s death.
Witnesses discuss Floyd’s underlying health problems.
At one point in his testimony, Tobin suggested that Floyd’s preexisting health conditions did not affect his death, adding that “healthy people” would die under similar conditions.
When asked by prosecutor Jerry Blackwell if he knew Floyd had a prior health condition, Tobin replied, “Yes, I am.” See them mentioned in the autopsy report.
“Do you have a reasonable opinion of the medical certainty that a person who has no previous health condition or is otherwise healthy will die in the same situation as Mr. Floyd?” Asked Blackwell.
“Yes, the healthy person who was under what Mr Floyd had to face would die from what he was doing,” Tobin replied.
Blackwell later reviewed the section in his testimony, asking, “Are any of these conditions related to Mr. Floyd’s cause of death professionally?”
“None,” Tobin replied.
“And then again, what are the reasons for those conditions?”
“The cause of death is low levels of oxygen that can lead to brain damage and cardiac arrest,” Tobin replied.
During a series of Tobin inspections, Nelson suggested that Floyd’s preexisting health conditions contributed to his death.
Nelson noted that Floyd has “certain types of heart disease” and “between 75 percent and 90 percent of the ventricular artery blockage.”
“And that will affect the blood flow in people, right? It’s going to make the body work a little harder to get the blood to pass through, ”Nelson asked Tobin.
“No, not true, it won’t do that,” Tobin replied.
When asked how it would affect a person’s respiratory system, Tobin laid out two situations before concluding: “We do not see the same.”
Experts testified that Floyd died while Chauvin had the knees on his neck.
At another point in his testimony, Tobin said Chauvin’s The knees were on Floyd’s neck. As his body’s oxygen level reached zero and the knee remained there for more than three minutes after that.
Blackwell offers a picture showing the moment when Floyd’s oxygen levels reached zero.
When asked to explain to the jury what the exhibition represents, Tobin said, “We saw that the oxygen level had dropped to zero at that point, there was no ounce of oxygen left in his body.”
Blackwell then asked how long Chauvin’s knee remained on Floyd’s neck after the oxygen depleted.
“The knees remained on our neck for three minutes and two seconds after we reached the point where there was an ounce of oxygen left in our bodies,” Tobin told Blackwell.
During the testimony, Tobin also led the jury through the bystanders photographed at the scene of Floyd’s arrest, in which he said: “The moment of the blackout” from Floyd’s body. During that time, Chauvin’s knees were still on Floyd’s neck.
“At first you can see that he is sane. You can see a slight flickering. And then it was gone, ”Tobin said.
“So one second he was alive and one second he was no longer. … You can see his eyes, he’s sane, and you can see that he’s not. That was the moment when life was out of his body, ”he said, as the footage showed Floyd’s face pressed to the ground.
Bill Smock, an emergency medicine physician specializing in forensic medicine, also discussed Floyd’s cause of death during his testimony. When Blackwell asked what he believed was Floyd’s death, he said he had died from “positional asphyxia.”
“Mr. Floyd died from positional asphyxia, which is a very thoughtful way to think he died because he had no oxygen left in his body,” Smock said.
“So what do we refer to as low oxygen?” Asked Blackwell.
“Low oxygen is one way that there is no oxygen. When the body is deprived of oxygen, in this case, from the pressure on the chest and back, he gradually succumbs to lower and lower oxygen levels until it is gone and he dies, ”adds Smock.
Later, in the testimony, Blackwell asked how Floyd died from anything other than positional asphyxia, including a heart attack, blood clots in the arteries, and an arrhythmia that would cause it to lose. Sudden life
“There is absolutely no autopsy evidence of anything that indicates Mr Floyd has had a heart attack,” Smock said.
“There was no evidence of a blood clot in any artery, no evidence of ruptured plaque hemorrhage, and no evidence that Mr Floyd had a heart attack,” Smock said.
Smock also eliminated the thrilling delirium that was a factor in Floyd’s death. Smock describes this condition as “a physical and psychiatric condition in which due to an imbalance in the brain, the patient exhibits a number of symptoms” including increased heart rate and breathing and “superhuman stamina.” ”
Smock said Floyd showed no 10 symptoms.
According to a report published by Brookings Institute Last year the term was disproportionately controversial in cases involving blacks and facing law enforcement.