Human genetic sequencing dating back 45,000 years has revealed previously unknown immigration to Europe and showed that integration with Neanderthals at that time was more common than previously thought.
The research is based on analyzes of several ancient human remains, including teeth and bone fragments found in a cave in Bulgaria last year.
Genetic sequencing revealed that the remains were from individuals who were more closely linked to current populations in East Asia and the Americas than European populations.
“This indicates that they belong to the immigration of modern humans to Europe, which were previously unknown from the genetic record,”; the research was published Wednesday in the journal Nature.
It also “provides evidence that there is at least a continuation between the oldest modern humans in Europe and those of later Eurasia,” the study added.
The findings “change our previous understanding of early human migration into Europe,” said study co-author Mateja Hajdinjak from Germany’s Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, who helped lead the research.
“It shows how the earliest history of modern Europeans in Europe might be chaotic and related to population shifts,” she told AFP.
One possibility that grows from the discovery is “the dispersion of displaced humans. [by other groups] Later in western Eurasia But they still live and contribute to the descent of the people of Eastern Eurasia, ”she added.
The remains were discovered last year in the Bashogiro Cave in Bulgaria and are regarded as evidence that humans lived with Neanderthals in Europe significantly earlier than previously thought.
Genetic analysis of the remains also revealed that modern humans in Europe at the time were more mixed with Neanderthals than previously assumed.
“All Bashokiro Caves had five or seven generations of Neanderthal ancestors before they lived, indicating that the mixture [mixing] Between the first humans in Europe and the Neanderthals was common, ”Hajdinjak said.
Earlier evidence of early human-human interbreeding in Europe came from a single person called Oase 1, dating back 40,000 years and found in Romania.
“Until now, we could not exclude that it was an opportunity,” Hajdinjak said.
The findings are accompanied by separate research published Wednesday in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution dealing with genome sequencing of skull samples found in the Czech Republic.
The skull was found in the Zlaty kun area in the 1950s, but its age has been a controversial issue and a controversial discovery over the decades.
Initial analyzes indicated that they were over 30,000, but radiocarbon dating brought closer to 15,000 years of age.
Genetic analysis now appears to have solved the problem, saying it was at least 45,000 years old, said Kay Prufer of the Archeology Department of the Max Planck Institute, who led the research.
“We take advantage of the fact that everyone who descended from their ancestors returned to individuals who left Africa more than 50,000 years ago, had little Neanderthals ancestors in their genomes,” he told the BBC AFP
These traces of Neanderthals appeared briefly in the modern human genome and are now extending their length in human history.
“In older people, such as the 45,000-year-old Ust’-Ishim man from Siberia, these blocks are much longer,” Prufer said.
“We found that the female Zlaty kun genome had a longer block than that of the Ust’-Ishim man. This gave us the confidence that she was living at the same time or before.”
Despite being traced from the same time as the Bashogiro remains, But Zlaty kun’s skull doesn’t share a genetic link with today’s Asian or European populations.
Prosper now hopes to study how the two sets of cadaveric populations are related.
“We don’t know who was the first Europeans to enter the unknown land,” he said.
“By analyzing their genomes, we are searching for a part of our own history that has been lost over time.”