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Here’s what’s involved and why it’s tough: NPR.



Officials removed the Iranian flag from the platform after taking a group photo with representatives of the United States, Iran, China, Russia, Britain, Germany, France and the European Union during Iran’s July 2015 nuclear talks in Vienna.

Carlos Barria / Pool / AFP via Getty Images


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Officials removed the Iranian flag from the platform after taking a group photo with representatives of the United States, Iran, China, Russia, Britain, Germany, France and the European Union during Iran’s July 2015 nuclear talks in Vienna.

Carlos Barria / Pool / AFP via Getty Images

Both the Biden administration and Iranian leaders said they wanted to revive the 2015 nuclear deal, but they halted who should take the first steps or give the first concession to get there.

Allies in Europe, Russia and China this week will mediate talks in Vienna to try and bring Iran and the United States back in.The talks officially start on Tuesday and could take days or even more rounds.

The US State Department expressed optimism in a statement on Friday, saying: These are still early days and we do not expect immediate progress as there will be tough discussions ahead. But we believe that this is a good step forward.

Keep in mind that in the accord, the United States and other world powers lifted economic sanctions on Iran. Most importantly, the US has banned companies doing business with Iran or the countries buying oil. Iran, on the other hand, agreed to restrict its nuclear program and allow its inspectors to examine it from within.

But former President Donald Trump withdrew and resumed sanctions, despite the aggravation. Iran, on the other hand, embarked on a reserve nuclear program closer to producing radioactive fuels that could be used in weapons.

Now, as the Biden administration and Iran argue who should take the initiative, whether the US lifts sanctions or Iran dismantles some of its nuclear equipment, there is an increased risk of conflict. In February, US officials said Iranian-backed militants were behind sporadic rocket attacks against American troops in Iraq, and that President Biden had ordered an airborne response to militia.

Here’s a review of how we got here:

Agreement 2015

Iran has long said it has a peaceful nuclear power program, but in 2015 it came close enough to the extra uranium mining and processing needed for the bombs. The US, Germany, France, Britain, Russia, China, the United Nations and the European Union have struck a deal to lift economic sanctions on Iran, giving access to billions of dollars in frozen assets to restore a sick economy.

On the other hand, Iran tore off some nuclear equipment, allowed Russia to remove its uranium and allowed inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency, or IAEA, to set up a shop in Iran and install cameras in a nuclear facility Iran says it has.

Iran also freed some foreigners detained there in return for the Iranians who were in the United States.

There were critics of the Obama administration’s deal in the deal. They pointed out that most of the restrictions would end around 2026, and they noted that the deal did not limit Iran’s non-nuclear missile program, which is seen as a threat to the region or solved the problem. Human rights abuses and Iran’s support for armed groups

Supporters of counter-working agreements with Iran on those regional issues would be easier if the country had no use of nuclear weapons. The deal resumed and put a halt to Iran’s efforts. Produced enough enriched uranium for nuclear bombs, the IAEA and Trump’s Defense Minister said Iran complied with the deal.

Trump said the deal was not tough enough, and as he reversed many of the Obama White House policies, he broke free from the 2018 deal, which broke US commitments and further adjusted sanctions. time

Consequences of the boycott

The deal that the US firm wants to make with Iran, such as a plan to sell Boeing planes, is swift. They’re blocked, and the restrictions don’t stop with US companies, although other countries don’t want to implement sanctions. But the US has also threatened to punish its companies if they do business with Iran. For example, if a French company wants to invest in Iran, it could be cut off from using American banks or doing business in the big US economy. That frightened international trade with Iran.

The United States has worked especially hard to block Iranian oil sales, the country’s biggest export, by cutting at least half its oil trade and cutting most of its oil trade, which remains an unconventional trade. Use cash or under-the-table arrangements.

The US cannot order other countries to close all trade. But the Iranian economy shrank by more than 10 percent, driving unemployment and poverty. And although the United States has been exempt from sanctions, international companies fear that trading in medical goods with Iran still violates US law. Iranians complain of a serious shortage.

Nuclear program at the moment

Overview of construction around Iran’s Natanz nuclear plant on April 3.

Satellite image © 2021 Maxar Technologies.


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Satellite image © 2021 Maxar Technologies.

Overview of construction around Iran’s Natanz nuclear plant on April 3.

Satellite image © 2021 Maxar Technologies.

Iran is downsizing its nuclear program as part of a deal to reduce both the hoarding of more nuclear materials and equipment it can produce.

When the Trump administration withdrew from the 2018 deal and resumed sanctions, Iran said it was no longer bound by the deal. Iran has slowly begun working on new projects, increasing the supply of enriched uranium and installing new equipment at the moth. It had announced these steps to the world at one point, promising to take new steps every month until the sanctions were imposed. Iran’s parliament passed a law calling on the government to end international scrutiny, at the heart of the deal.

When the deal was struck, Iran was about a year away from obtaining the materials needed for nuclear weapons, it should opt to do so as of February, some estimates now set such a time scale. At least three months

Opponents and destroyers

Leaders in both the US and Iran will face a push back home if they return to the deal. After Trump battered years, many Americans believed the deal was too easy for Iran. And after the United States abandoned its commitment to the deal, many Iranians surrendered to the wealth that was once expected of the deal. There is a political cost that they will have to pay if they want to get a deal, ”said Trita Parsi of the Quincy Institute for Responsible Statecraft recently. Morning edition.

But there are other spoilers there.Iran’s staunch forces, such as the country’s powerful Revolutionary Guards, have long resisted close ties with the West. The Guard supports some Iraqi troops accused of rocket attacks on US troops.

And there are allies of the United States – Israel and Saudi Arabia, in particular, who view Iran as a real threat and fear what it can do with billions of dollars in oil and other new businesses.

Even if it was in compliance with the nuclear deal before the United States withdrew. But Iran continued to provoke the move. It has been taken prisoner by some foreigners, continually developing a powerful conventional missile program and helping a suppressed government in Syria and the Houthi rebels that toppled Yemen’s pro-Saudi government.

Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif (left) met with International Atomic Energy Agency Rafael Grossi (right) in February in Tehran. After Iran threatened to hold back audits, the agency and Iran agreed to continue some investigative activities.

STR / AFP via Getty Images


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Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif (left) met with International Atomic Energy Agency Rafael Grossi (right) in February in Tehran. After Iran threatened to hold back audits, the agency and Iran agreed to continue some investigative activities.

STR / AFP via Getty Images

Back in – who goes first?

Biden campaigned on a contract to join the nuclear deal again and lift sanctions as Iran followed it again. And Iran said it would act as soon as the United States began releasing it to do business again. But they are stuck

Prior to the announcement of talks this week, the administration requested direct talks with Iran about how it has been done. It said it could wait to investigate Iran’s compliance before lifting the sanctions.

Iran appears to be seen as an attempt by the United States to delay the lifting of sanctions or change the original deal, making it a little stronger or longer, something that would help the deal go down in a way. Politics in america “All nuclear deals cannot be reached as they are fully negotiated,” Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Jawad Zarif told CNN. “We need to take some action that we negotiate. We don’t buy horses twice,” Iran said it will bring the program into action when it is certain the US has lifted the sanctions.

The US has now agreed to join talks without meeting directly with Iran. But let a mediator pass between them

There are a number of ways to logjam.The sanctions are complex and could be eased one by one, releasing frozen money as Iran takes another step towards curtailing its nuclear program. But it will take political will on both sides, and it can become more intense as it takes longer, especially when Iran has a presidential election in June where the tough can win.

Geoff Brumfiel contributed to this report.


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