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How will the different types of COVID vaccine deal with the new virus?



More contagious new strains of the coronavirus are being investigated in the United States, raising questions about whether the current coronavirus vaccine will help prevent mutations.

Several contiguous patterns have taken place around the world in the UK, South Africa and Brazil. In the United States, breeds from New York City and California are identified.

So far, studies have suggested that current vaccines can recognize new strains, but they don̵

7;t offer much protection against these new strains. For example, a variant from South Africa reduced its antibody protection. Pfizer-BioNTech Two-thirds down, according to the February study. Moderna’s neutralizing antibodies were 6 times reduced compared to the South African variant.

(There are a number of reasons why the antibodies that are generated after vaccination may recognize variables. But they can’t fight it either.Antibodies protect you by attaching them to each disrupting protein on the surface of the corona virus, which prevents it from infecting your cells if The variable generates multiple times the virus, the antibody may not be able to accurately or effectively bind to all viruses.)

But a new generation of boosters and vaccines that are already targeting this strain are being explored.

All three vaccines licensed by the Food and Drug Administration for emergency use from Moderna, Pfizer-BioNTech, and Johnson & Johnson work in different ways, so there are different approaches to managing variables. various Here’s what we know:

modern

Moderna is testing it using an existing third-dose vaccine, as well as a booster shot targeting the South African variant. (Samples were sent to the National Institutes of Health for clinical trials on Feb. 24.)

Moderna CEO Stephane Bancel said the company “is committed to updating our vaccines as much as necessary until the outbreak is under control” in a February 24 press release.

Moderna vaccines use messenger RNA, or “mRNA” technology, to deliver genetic material to cells, with instructions for creating corona virus-free protein fragments. The immune system remembers the copies of the protein blocking it and makes antibodies against it. If a fully vaccinated person is exposed to a real virus in the future, the body will remember how to trigger the immune response and make antibodies to fight the virus.

The catalyst for the new strain uses the same technology as Moderna’s original COVID vaccine. “Copy and paste” the new mutation into the vaccine. Kizzmekia Corbett, who leads Moderna’s vaccine team, calls this approach. “Plug and play”

It can take several months for clinical data to be available for review and longer for the booster to be approved, manufactured, and ready to serve.

Moderna’s president Stephen Hoge told Scientific American that if the strain begins to influence the infection in the coming months, the company is preparing to. “Figure out when and how we will change it.” Hoge did not comment on when the booster will be available.

Pfizer – Biotech

Pfizer-Biotech Testing Third Booster Shot Vaccine In the Phase 1 study, the participants received their third dose six to 12 months after they had been fully vaccinated.

The company is also discussing clinical trials for “Variable-specific vaccine”, the original vaccine created using a South African strain.

“We think our vaccines work well for all strains,” said Pfizer Chief Scientific Officer Mikael Dolsten in a future Feb. 25 interview. It is “reasonable” that people will need regular vaccinations, Dolsten said, or companies may have to change strains every few years to adapt, he said.

Like Moderna, Pfizer’s mRNA vaccine is moderately adaptable.

“The flexibility of our proprietary mRNA vaccine platform allows us to technically develop a booster vaccine in weeks if needed,” said Ugur Sahin, BioNTech CEO and co-founder, at the launch.

“These regulatory guidelines are already in place for other infectious diseases such as the flu. We take these steps to ensure long-term immunity to viruses and strains.”

Johnson & Johnson

The newest vaccine licensed for emergency use by the Food and Drug Administration has a 72% efficacy rate in preventing moderate illness in the United States. But in South Africa, where highly contagious viral mutations are the main variable, the efficacy is 64% effective against moderate to severe or critical coronavirus, according to the FDA in Brazil, 66% of the vaccine was effective.

(Experts say it is worth noting that the Johnson & Johnson experiment took place when the new breed became the dominant one in South Africa and Brazil, while the Moderna and Pfizer trials took place before the emergence).

Johnson & Johnson’s one-time vaccine uses adenovirus, the virus that causes the common cold, as a messenger to deliver commands to the body’s cells.

Alex Gorsky, CEO of Johnson & Johnson, said the company is well positioned to modify vaccines for different strains and is working on developing software that will: “Help cope with these new and upcoming variables.” During a March 1 interview with CNBC’s “Squawk Box”, he didn’t explain how the software will work.

“We are pretty confident from the clinical data we already have with our vaccines that we will have a very positive response. But we do the same thing at the same time. [as other companies working on variants]”Gorsky said.

Nova Wax

Although Novavax’s two-shot covid vaccine has not yet been approved in the United States, the company expects it to receive FDA approval by May.

Data from the UK trial in January showed that the vaccine was 89% more effective at preventing COVID and 85.6% against infections in the UK, but the Novavax vaccine was 50% less effective for the South African strains.

Novavax is working on a third booster that could be tested in April, a company spokesperson told Scientific American.

Novavax is a two-dose “protein subunit” vaccine, which means it contains harmless protein fragments that directly stimulate the immune system. So basically, scientists can add different strains to existing vaccines as different strains emerge.

Novavax CEO Stanley Erck told NPR that the COVID vaccine is “very easy” to modify, similar to yearly customizing the flu vaccine to match the dominant strain.

It could become a “bivalent vaccine,” a vaccine that protects against many strains of the virus. “So we will use the original Wuhan and the South African breed. [to tweak the vaccine] And tested it on humans in the second quarter of this year, ”Erck told NPR.

To check your eligibility status, you can use NBC News’ plan your vaccine tool.

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