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Humans have been great predators for two million years.



Tel Aviv University researchers were able to recreate Neanderthal nutrition. In a paper published in the Yearbook of the American Physical Anthropology Association, Dr. Miki Ben-Dor and Prof. Run Barkai from Jacob M.Alkov Department of Archeology at Tel Aviv University, in collaboration with Portugal’s Raphael Sirtoli, show: Human being Apex hunters for about two million years. Only the extinction of large animals (megas) in different parts of the world and the decline of animal feed sources in the late Stone Age led humans to gradually increase the vegetable composition in their nutrition until they eventually had no choice. Other than Raise both plants and animals – and become a farmer.

“Until now, much of the effort to recreate Neanderthal food has come from comparison with the hunter-gatherer society of the 20th century,”

; explains Dr Ben-Dor. Two million years ago, a hunter-gatherer society was able to hunt and eat elephants and other large animals, while today’s hunter gatherers had no access to such bounty.The entire ecosystem has changed and the conditions cannot be compared. We decided to use other methods to recreate the Neanderthal diet to examine the memory stored in the body, the metabolism, heredity, and the formation of the body. But evolves slowly, the body remembers “

In a process that was previously unparalleled in its scope, Dr. Ben-Dor and his colleagues collected approximately 25 lines of evidence from approximately 400 scientific papers from different scientific disciplines to tackle the focused question: Neanderthals were exclusively carnivores. Or is it a common herbivore? Most evidence is found in current research into biology, including genetics, metabolism, physiology and morphology.

“One outstanding example is the acidity of the human stomach,” said Dr Ben-Dor. “The acidity in our stomach is high compared to all herbivores and even animals. Producing and maintaining a strong acidity requires a lot of energy, and its existence is evidence for the consumption of animal products.Its strong acidity protects against the harmful bacteria it finds. In the meat And prehistoric humans, hunting large animals with adequate meat for days or weeks, often consume old meat with a large number of bacteria, so it is imperative to maintain a high level of acidity. Is the predator is the structure of the fat cells in In our body, in the body of omnivores, fat is stored in relatively small amounts of large fat cells, while in predators, including humans, this is another option: we have more microscopic fat cells. Important evidence for Human evolution is also found as a predator in our genome. “Regions of the human genome are closed to allow t-rich diet, while chimpanzees have opened up regions of the genome to allow sugar-rich food intake.”

The evidence from human biology is supplemented by archaeological evidence. For example, research into stable isotopes in prehistoric human bones as well as unique human hunting shows that humans are adept at hunting large- and medium-fat, high-fat animals. Comparing humans to large social predators today, all people hunt large animals and get more than 70% of their energy from animal sources, reinforcing the conclusion that humans are adept at hunting large and, in fact, animals. Such as hypercarnivar

“Hunting big is not an afternoon hobby,” says Dr Ben-Dor. “It takes a lot of knowledge. Lions and hyenas achieved these abilities after years of learning. The remains of large animals found in countless archaeological sites are the result of mankind’s high expertise as large hunters. Extinction studies of large animals agree that human hunting played a key role in this extinction – and there is no better proof of human expertise in hunting most of the larger species. In today’s predator, the hunt itself is Human activities focused on most of human evolution.Other archaeological evidence, such as the fact that special tools for the acquisition and processing of vegetable foods, appeared only in the latter stages of human evolution, also support incorporation. Aside of large animals in the human diet. Human history “

The multidisciplinary revival, carried out by TAU researchers for nearly a decade, offers a complete paradigm shift in our understanding of human evolution. Contrary to the prevalent hypothesis that humans evolved and survived from dietary flexibility, which allowed them to combine hunting with vegetable diets, the picture here is that the humans that evolved largely were. Large predator

“Archaeological evidence does not ignore the fact that Neanderthals also consumed plants,” added Dr Ben-Dor. “But based on the plant’s findings studied, this became a staple of the human diet only in the late nineties.”

Evidence of genetic variation and the unique presence of stone tools for processing plants led the researchers to conclude that beginning about 85,000 years ago in Africa and about 40,000 years ago in Europe and Asia, the consumption of plant foods increased t. Little by little The same is true for food diversity – according to different ecological conditions. This increase was accompanied by an increase in the local identity of the stone tool culture, which was similar to the diversity of material cultures in the hunter-gatherer society of the 20th century. Research indicates that humans are excellent hunters, long similarities and continuity have been observed in stone tools, regardless of local ecological conditions.

“Our study addresses the very large current controversy, both scientific and non-scientific,” says Prof. Barkai. “For many people today, the primeval diet is an important problem, not only scientific and non-scientific,” says Prof. Barkai. But only about the past It is also related to the present and the future. It is difficult to convince a vegetarian that his / her ancestors are not vegetarian and that people tend to To confuse personal beliefs with scientific reality, our studies are both multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary.We offer an unprecedented, comprehensive and broad picture that clearly demonstrates that Humans were hunters who were initially adept at hunting large beasts, as Darwin discovered. The adaptation of organisms to their acquisition and digestion is the primary source of evolutionary change, so the claim that humans are atop the top predators throughout most of their development may provide insight. Fundamentals of the Evolution of Biology and Human Culture ”

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