The COVID-19 vaccine is one of the best vaccine ever. It is safe and more than 90% effective in preventing any disease – even more so in preventing serious illness and death.
Pharmaceutical companies are trying to do better.
Some images work better compared to certain strains of the COVID-19 SARS virus, others aim to cover a wide range of severe respiratory viruses, including SARS. The first, which caused an outbreak from 2002 to 2004, or even all of the larger coronavirus families.
Companies are testing a vaccine that doesn̵7;t need to be kept cold, doesn’t require two shots, has fewer side effects, can be manufactured more efficiently, and can be delivered without a needle for easy supply. In rural and developing world areas.
“The second vaccine has a long history of being doubly improved compared to the first vaccine. That’s just the way to go,” said Scott Roberts, chief scientific officer at technology company Altimmune. Bio, based in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Development of an inhaled vaccine
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These second-generation COVID-19 vaccines won’t be available until at least this summer, and many, including Altimmune, won’t reach early next year at the earliest. Experts say there is no single vaccine that will meet all the requirements.
Experts say there may be nearly 8 billion residents in the world, all of whom will need one or two initial doses and possibly a trigger, so there is ample room for different approaches, experts say.
“Depth and breadth” is what vaccineer, pharmacist and public health leader John Grabenstein says he needs. The second generation of the vaccine. He expects protection from various forms and respiratory ailments and should last a decade or more between shootings.
The jury is still considering how long the current vaccine will last, or whether we need a stimulant, said Scott Hensley, an immunotherapist at the University of Pennsylvania Pereira School of Medicine. “Time will tell,” he said.
Most of the companies investing in the COVID-19 vaccine have speculated that even the idea that there must be regular promotion has been made.
Stanley Erck, president and CEO of Novavax, which plans to release data on the effectiveness of the vaccine soon, said his company’s monkey study showed that an increase in the dose one year after the first vaccination was given. “The results are remarkable”
“I think we’ll have to do that with humans,” he said. “This won’t go away from a commercial point of view any time in the future.”
The expected demand for outstanding
Dr. Paul Office, director of the Center for Vaccine Studies at Philadelphia Children’s Hospital, said the COVID-19 virus will not be epidemic forever. But the virus that causes it may persist like the flu.
“Do we really need to vaccinate as long as this virus is in the world? I think the answer to that question is yes,” Offit said.
The problem isn’t with vaccines, which are better than anyone could have guessed. “This is the most remarkable scientific achievement in my life,” Offit said. “And I am old, my lifespan includes the polio vaccine.”
But the virus has changed, immunity has faded, and there is always room for improvement, he said.
To understand how long immunity lasts, researchers often consider antibodies in the blood, which begin to decline in the months after infection and to a lesser extent than vaccination. The immune system has a second line of defense, called T cells, which is not easily studied. Betty Diamond, an immunology and rheumatologist at the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research in New York.
“If these were good, we could have been protected longer than the antibodies suggested,” Diamond said.
The leaders of the vaccine race are not waiting until the protection is down. They are experimenting with the best way to create outstanding.
It is not clear which approach will be most effective, but many companies, including Moderna, are testing whether people will be better protected if they receive the same vaccine additions or injections that are suitable for at least one variant. Type in circulation
Moderna, the maker of one of three vaccines against COVID-19 licensed in the United States, uses artificial intelligence and machine learning to try to predict potential mutations and design a vaccine to address it. Said Melissa J. Moore, Chief of Moderna, Scientific Officer for Platform Research.
It is unclear how many strains of mRNA vaccines and viruses like Moderna can provide at the same time, but Moore says she can do at least six vaccines at one time and possibly up to 10, some of which may cover the SARS strain. CoV-2, along with many flu Strains and other respiratory viruses
Moore said any revised Moderna vaccine would have a lower dose.The company used a high dose of the starter vaccine to guarantee efficacy. But, she said, the company was confident the dosage could be lower, reducing side effects without compromising on protection.
One of Moderna’s co-founders, Robert Langer, is known for his research into microneedles, small Band-Aid-like patches that can deliver medication without the pain of a shot.Moderna has said nothing about the organizing plan. send But it’s possible the company might try to combine the two technologies to provide a non-injectable booster.
Other future endeavors
Both Moderna’s vaccine and one by Pfizer-BioNTech The first licensed in the United States was quickly produced, highly efficient and utilized a technology called messenger RNA. German company CureVac, which started working on mRNA several years ago, is trying to catch up and possibly make the leap. Forward in the sponsored market.
Mariola Fotin-Mleczek It said CureVac’s initial efficacy and safety data will be released on any day, but the company has already focused on the second generation of the vaccine, which is expected to be available by the end of the year at the latest, said Chief Mariola Fotin-Mleczek. Company technology officer
Fotin-Mleczek It said the second-generation CureVac vaccine would induce a higher immune response than the first at a lower dose and would have no cold-retention problems of other mRNA vaccines, Fotin-Mleczek said. One or two pills for long-term protection? She said.
CureVac’s vaccines should appeal to low and middle-income countries, she said, because low doses will make them relatively inexpensive and storage requirements will make them easier to distribute.
With the first version of the vaccine released this summer, the company hopes to have any manufacturing issues by the time the second version is ready this year, she said.
GlaxoSmithKline There is at least a long-term need to support three vaccines made by other companies, including CureVac, which have received “multiple goals”, according to GlaxoSmithKline Global Vaccines President Roger Connor.GSK created what is known as an adjuvant. This can be added to the vaccine to make it work more efficiently in smaller doses.
GSK and another partner, Medicago, a Quebec City, Canadian-based biopharmaceutical company, released clinical data indicating their plant-derived vaccines are safe and potentially effective against COVID-. 19
Planting vaccines in plants could be easier and could potentially increase the size of the vaccine production more predictable, Connor said.
GSK is also matching Sanofi for a vaccine that launched a final trial Thursday to prove its safety and effectiveness. The trial, which will include 35,000 adult volunteers from the United States, Asia, Africa and Latin America, will be conducted in two phases: the first against the original virus and the second against the variables found in South Africa.
The couple hoped that their vaccine could be used as a first-line primer. But it plans to test it as a complementary drug for those who are also vaccinated, Connor said. “It’s too early to tell what will be needed.”
Several companies are working on a vaccine that can be delivered without a needle that affects some people’s spine.
Proponents say the nasal spray is meaningful because COVID-19 is delivered through aerosol and water droplets that can enter the body through the nose and then travel into the respiratory tract. This area is filled with mucus and the formation of what is known as mucosal immunity should prevent viral infection.
The nasal vaccine tends to avoid side effects such as fever and muscle aches, which can be accompanied by arm shots, said Altimmune’s Roberts.In an oral flu vaccine trial, he said side effects were not. So severe that no difference was made between the active vaccine and the saline placebo.
Roberts said an inhaled vaccine with limited side effects would be helpful in protecting younger children who were not eligible for the COVID-19 vaccine. Critically ill from COVID-19, so reducing the side effects improves the vaccine’s risk-to-risk ratio for them.
A vaccine, like the one his company is developing, will have an advantage in countries that don’t have a lot of financial resources, he said.Altimmune vaccines don’t need to be frozen or refrigerated for weeks at a time and can be delivered without. There are highly trained medical professionals.
The company expects to release preliminary trial data next month, and if all goes well, it will file for approval from the Food and Drug Administration early next year.Altimmune is testing both one and two times. But hopefully one will be enough, Roberts said.
Although most vaccines target the characteristic “spike” proteins outside of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the COVID-19 vaccine from ImmunityBio has a second virus target, hoping to avoid problems with the variant. And to encourage Long-term T cell response
The Culver City, California-based company is experimenting with four different delivery routes: firing sublingual drops, pills and nasal sprays, and painting the mix and match, according to the company, perhaps. Inject a nasal spray followed by a nasal spray to reduce the chance of infection and possible transmission of the virus through the respiratory tract.
A trial approved last week will test the vaccine as a catalyst for vaccinated South African health workers, according to a company press release.
Hensley of Penn said the future will depend on how the virus changes and how long the immunity from the first vaccine lasts.
“If I were a gamble, I’d say we don’t need sponsors this fall,” he said. “Will we need sponsors in five years? Maybe.”
It makes sense for companies to invest money and research into the next generation of vaccines. But the more pressing issue is to provide more people with available vaccines, he said. “We have real and tangible solutions to what is presented to us now, and it’s just a matter of vaccinations.”
Contact Karen Weintraub at email@example.com.
Patient health and safety coverage at USA TODAY is partially possible, funded by the Masimo Foundation for Ethics, Innovation and Competition in Healthcare.The Masimo Foundation does not provide editorial feedback.
This article originally appeared on USA TODAY: The new COVID vaccine is cheaper, easier, more protective.