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NASA says asteroids ‘Potentially dangerous’ that may be bigger than the Eiffel Tower will shoot through the world next week



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Scientists reveal secrets of human chromosomes yet to be discovered

Finally, scientists weighed the complete set of human chromosomes. and found that the chromosomes were 20 times heavier than expected, announcing that they may have “The missing component,”

; the researchers told the Sunday Telegraph they had no idea what it was. Chromosomes are a group of genetic material present in almost every cell of all complex organisms. From bacteria to humans and everything in between. Most humans have 46 chromosomes – 23 pairs – of all different sizes and shapes. But other species have different numbers. For example, possums have only 22, foxes have 34, and great white sharks have 82. But Atlas’ blue butterfly has about 450, and Adder’s tongue fern has 1,440. wobble but regardless of the number or living things All chromosomes have the same basic structure. Each base of DNA, called A, G, C, and T, pairs up and forms a double-stranded short chain that wraps around eight protein balls to form a bundle called nucleosomes. These tiny bundles of genetic material. They are connected by a thin piece of connective material, and experts call them. ‘Beads on a Rope’, but as we all know And the complete copy of the human genome contains more than 6.4 billion base pairs of DNA, but the exact mass and total mass of our chromosomes has never been known. Scientists from UCL used powerful X-ray beams in Didcot, Oxfordshire, called Diamond, to weigh for the first time a complete set of human chromosomes. The researchers attacked each chromosome with X-rays and assessed how scattered the beams were. This diffraction pattern is used to reconstruct the 3D structure of chromosomes. The brightness of the Diamond Machine, which shines above the sun billions of times. resulting in highly detailed images Professor Robinson and colleagues published their paper in the journal Chromosome Research and found that the mass of all 46 human chromosomes is 242 picograms. The heaviest chromosome is chromosome 1, which is also the largest chromosome and weighs 10.9 picograms. One picogram is One trillionth of a gram and a grain of sand weighs approximately 0.000000004 picograms. Red blood cells, which have no nucleus and therefore do not contain genetic material. “Our chromosomes also have a large number of missing components that have yet to be discovered,” said Professor Ian Robinson, senior author of the new study from UCL. “Chromosomes have been investigated by scientists for 130 years, but there are still some of these complex structures that are still not fully understood,” he continued, “the mass of DNA we know from the Human Genome Project. But this is the first time we’ve been able to accurately measure the mass of the chromosomes that include this DNA.” Our measurements suggest 46 chromosomes in each of our chromosomes. The cells weigh 242 picograms. “This is heavier than we expected and if replicated, it points to an unexplained excess mass in the chromosomes.” The researchers blasted them with X-rays when the cells were in the previous metaphase. to enter the separation process Scientists are constantly trying to learn more about the human body. and mapping of the genome A major step forward in that, however, the study reveals that there is still a long way to go before we fully understand the differences in our bodies. Ashana Bharatiya, a PhD student at the London Center for Nanotechnology at UCL and lead author The article’s article says: “A better understanding of chromosomes may have implications for human health.” Numerous chromosome studies are conducted in medical laboratories to diagnose cancer from patient samples. “improving our ability to image chromosomes will therefore highly valuable.”


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