Nasiriya, Iraq – Invention of the wheel, the Hammurabi Code – or the Rule of Law – was first established and where oil was burned as a source of energy for the first time.
It is an ancient Iraqi city of Ur, located in the province of Dhi Qar, 300km (200 miles) south of the capital Baghdad, and is the place Pope Francis planned to visit during his three-day trip. Historic times to the country
Over 6,000 years ago, Ur became one of the world’s first major urban centers, and centuries later it developed into the center of the world economy at the time, with a large number of rugs and wool garments to export in Mesopoté. Wife and foreign
Ur, also known as Tal al-Muqayer, is one of the most important archaeological sites throughout history.
The Patriarch is expected to host an interfaith meeting in Ur on Saturday.
Dhi Qar is the centerpiece of Sumer’s ancient Iraqi civilization, including the ruins of Ur, Eridu, Lagash, Gisu, Umma and Bad-tibira, or the copper worker wall.
In July 2016, UNESCO placed Ur on the World Heritage List, in addition to the southern Iraqi marshes and other sites such as Eridu and Al-Warka.
During his visit to Iraq, Pope Francis will visit Ur after meeting with politicians, religious figures and archaeological sites in Najaf, Erbil, Mosul and the capital city of Baghdad.
Ur is one of many cities built by the Sumerians, which makes this the capital of their state. When they settled in southern Iraq around 3,500 BC, they surrounded the walls and built markets, workshops and agricultural villages inside. It gave rise to the development of the main trade transport routes with other cities and countries at the time.
Excavations in the early 1900s in Ur indicated that people lived a life of luxury as the city flourished in the growth and trade of wheat and barley. Excavations continue to this day thanks to the undiscovered treasure that will provide further insights into the world’s first advanced city.
For decades, archaeological excavations have been banned due to conflicts and safety concerns. But Iraqi and American researchers began excavating the site again in the years after the collapse of dictator Saddam Hussein.
“During the 2007 excavation season in ancient Urria, we found about 100 tablets, including important ancient texts,” Naziriya archaeologist Mustafa al-Husaini told. Al Jazeera
“When we studied textbooks with the help of the American University of Stony Brook, these tablets were small libraries. I discovered about 45 people, ”he said.
The Sumerians developed a system of irrigation and cereal cultivation, as well as inventing the Kuniform characters used in ancient Mesopotamia and Persia. They also developed an algorithm that is used to measure current time.
Sumerian society accepts maternal leadership roles in the family, and women are commanded to a high degree of respect. Another cultural heritage of the Sumerian civilization is poetry and pottery.
Sir Leonard Woolley, a British archaeologist who excavated the city of Ur in 1922, discovered the royal tombs that matched the Pharaohs’ tombs in the Pyramids of Giza in Egypt.
Sumerians were interested in building temples out of mud and asphalt. The ancient zigurat, or terrace, still dominates Ur and is considered one of the oldest pyramids of Mesopotamian civilization.
The building next to the Ziggurat is said to date back about 1900 BC and was once the home of the Prophet Ibrahim, known as Abraham by Christians and Jews.
Amer Abdulrazzaq, head of the Nasiriyah Civilization Museum, explains why Ur is considered so important to Christians, Jews and Muslims.
“Ur is the birthplace of the prophet Ibrahim and is mentioned in the Torah and the Gospel, and therefore all religions consider him their spiritual father.
“So visiting his homeland is one of the most important religious rites of a Christian pilgrimage,” he told Al Jazeera.
An expedition by Al Hamdani and American archaeologists has identified 15,000 archaeological sites across Iraq.
“In Nasiriya alone there are about 1,200 archaeological sites, which are equivalent to all French and Italian antiques combined,” he said.
Pope Francis’ historic visit is aimed at boosting the morale of the besieged Christian minority in Iraq, which has dwindled in recent years amid war and insurgency. Persecuted and to promote religious coexistence between Muslims, Christians, and other minorities.
“Politicians need to promote the spirit of solidarity of the brotherhood,” the pontiff said on Friday.
“There is corruption, abuse of power, that’s not the way. At the same time, you need to think about justice, transparency, to strengthen certain values, that is, how trust grows so that everyone, especially young people, has hope for the future. ”