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The New York Times

TikTok’s ‘talking’ dog

Alexis Devine says she knew early on that her Sheepadoodle puppy, Bunny, was destined to speak. Devine, a 40-year-old artist and jewelry designer in Tacoma, Washington, has studied canine cognitive literature. Communication and Training In the months before Bunny’s arrival, she found the Instagram page of speech pathologist Christina Hunger recording how her own dog Stella began to improve her English vocabulary. Sign up for The Morning newsletter from the New York Times. Stella has a soundboard made up of circular buttons. which each button assigns a word when pressed by placing buttons This makes up a loosely structured sentence that Stella should communicate in English. Hunger, 27, has been working in assistive technology for years. especially Alternative and Auxiliary Communication (AAC) devices to help children non-verbal, gaining vocabulary and communicating without speaking It has long been common for speech pathologists to limit vocabulary on AAC devices for children, the idea that too many words will overwhelm them. But the conventional wisdom among communications professionals has shifted to allow device users to showcase their talents by giving as much vocabulary to play as possible. No one would have thought that a baby would be speechless if he hadn̵

7;t said his first word in 12 months, Hunger reasoned. Why would that logic be applied to someone who is unable to speak? Whether it’s a child with catatonia or an organism that lacks the organs needed to speak, such as a dog, hunger has begun to experiment. Most AAC devices are either too expensive or not suitable for use by dogs. So she chose the cheapest option that could be found online, the Buzzer. Four recorded responses. The box arrived at her home in San Diego a week after Stella Hunger decided that a button with the word “outside” would be the best place to start walking and practicing at home. within a few weeks Stella also pressed to release regularly and regularly. Devine had read about Stella on the Hunger blog, so when Bunny showed up in October 2019, her first button – “outside” – was waiting at the door. already Is this dog smarter than a toddler? Dogs have learned many tricks over the past 20,000 years as they are believed to have been domesticated for the first time. Most can respond to basic commands such as “sit” and “stay.” They can remember terms like “heal” and “walk.” Some have demonstrated a relatively human ability to choose the names of objects. New and stored for future retrieval Claudia Fugazza, Research Fellow at the Department of Ethics (that is, animal behavior) at the Eotvos Lorand University in Budapest. Hungary said: “Householding tends to affect the position of the dog’s brain. to be able to interact and socialize with humans better “They are more likely to interact with humans as social partners.” All this makes it clear that dogs can follow many human social signals. But apart from movies and TV shows Dog owners rarely claim that their pets are capable of speaking. “Rabbit can now speak 92 words,” Devine said in a phone call with Zoom in April. Her dog is framed and blends in the soft carpet. underneath Bunny is almost 2 years old and her language skills may be comparable to that of a human toddler. (A normal 2-year-old can easily use at least 50 words.) According to Devine, Bunny can use buttons. on her soundboard to create four-word phrases. she can ask questions She can and often tells people to shut up — or “calm down” with the words of her button. “It’s been a long time since Bunny specifically talked about shit,” says Devine, “but so do the kids?” With 6.6 million followers on TikTok and 818,000 on Instagram, Bunny has become the poster girl for the movement. Hunger’s dog AAC “Alexis is good at social media,” said Hunger, who has nearly 800,000 followers on Instagram, most of whom seem to be there for canine content. Most dogs (and their owners) swim in this area. and there is more Just search for hashtags. #hungerforwords – Bunny’s social media paws don’t have to be printed, people on-the-go remember her as she walks. “There was one case where a U-turned in traffic and stopped in the middle of the road and rolled over a window to say hello,” Devine told Word Buttons, but Made It Science in early 2020, about six months after the Bunny learned “outside” Devine. Get in touch with Leo Trottier, a product developer working in the pet industry. He hopes to work together. In 2016, Trottere, a PhD candidate with a master’s degree in Cognitive Science has introduced Clever Pet This is the world’s first game console for dogs. But after a failed attempt to raise funds for the product on Kickstarter, he abandoned the project. Three years later, when Trottier discovered Hunger’s work, he saw an opportunity to work together, while Hunger and Devine used a sound button to record. But Trottier is developing the FluentPet, an AAC device designed for dogs. and he’s looking for beta testers (Hunger has signed a book deal with HarperCollins (At the time FluentPet launched the beta and declined Trottier’s request to cooperate,) Trottier reached out to Federico Rossano, a professor at the University of California, San Diego, to help him — in Rossano’s words — “science up” the Rossano project. Cognitive researchers who have worked extensively with different species Nana at first felt insecure. But he finally saw an opportunity to systematically and rigorously study the dog’s abilities in language proficiency. with the potential to extract results from a group of participants that differed from those he had previously received. At the same time, Devine, whose jewelry business slowed significantly during the pandemic. Get additional incentives to become an affiliate product influencer. This means that she will earn over 8% of every FluentPet sale made through a referral link to. website from her Instagram page In June 2020 Trottier and Rossano started They Can Talk, an online research project and forum for participants. San Francisco and San Diego areas,” Rossano said, but after the lockdown in early 2020 and the popularity of TikTok growing, people at home bored. Thousands of people began to wonder if their pets could talk like rabbits too. There are currently more than 2,500 participants in the study. There is no need to purchase FluentPet products to participate. But there are incentives on the website of the research study. (Prices range from $29.25 for the test kit to $195.95 for the 32-button kit.) “We have a data-sharing agreement,” Rossano says. “I am the scientific leader of the project. and the analyzes and findings will be reported in scientific papers.” To avoid conflicts of interest, Rossano was not paid for his work in this study. in principle He wants research to be conducted as independently of FluentPet as possible, but studies of this size need company support. “I’m a scientist. And as far as I’m concerned My job is to assess how these devices reveal new and unexpected cognitive abilities. Or all of this can be explained by a simple learning mechanism. common in many animals,” Rossano said. Animals have been ‘speaking’ for centuries. For at least 200 years, researchers have reported several non-human animals that have demonstrated remarkable language-like abilities. One example that has emerged widely in comparative cognitive studies since the beginning of the 20th century is the case of a horse named Clever Hans. Precisely, for example, when asked, “What is 2+2?”, he knocks his hoof four times. But when psychologist Oskar Pfungst analyzed horses in 1907, he concluded that Hans responded to human signals. Instead of showing that it understands human speech since then The “Cleverhans effect” has pushed scientists to develop methods that eliminate human presence and influence from animal perception studies to avoid false positives. In the late 1950s, primates became the focus of study of the language abilities of non-human animals. especially chimpanzees Scientists intend to quickly teach young chimpanzees a spoken language: non-human animals don’t have the vocal apparatus to open their mouths and say “hey you” a decade later. Comparative Cognitive Scientists Became Inspired by Disability Studies By shifting attention to sign language, such as American sign language. The idea that visual language has the potential for expression as well as speech was relatively new when chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans began demonstrating their ability to learn and use gestures according to ASL in the 1990s. That dog development can reflect toddlers starting to gain traction. But research on dog communication is still very basic. “Canine neurology is a relatively new field,” says Fugazza, a researcher in Budapest. In 2017, Gregory Berns, professor of neuroeconomics at Emory University, led a training program that taught dogs to walk into fMRI scanners without sedation or sedation. restraint when the dog is inside The owner then names the surrounding objects and toys along with gibberish. from time to time The scans showed that the dogs’ brains were able to quickly distinguish words they knew from unfamiliar and nonsense. Unlike chimpanzees, however, dogs do not seem to differentiate between different words with a single utterance (such as “paw” and “fart”). Dogs are subject to an artificial evolutionary process as a result of domestication. especially over the past two decades. Research has shown that dogs have a slightly different social understanding of human social cues. may be caused by The “home hypothesis” – the idea that dogs’ social behavior is shaped in response to human sensibilities, says Juliane Kaminski, professor of comparative psychology. “We are interested in a recent discovery which shows that there are certain facial movements in dogs that humans find very interesting. This allows dogs to develop facial muscles that wolves don’t.” at the University of Portsmouth. “They are basically puppy eyes. There is a dog’s facial expression when raising eyebrows. And this is a movement similar to sadness in humans, and they seem to find a lot of charm in the dog’s face,” Rossano said, instead of asking if dogs can understand humans. “We can ask if they can learn to communicate with humans using human signals.” Philosopher and senior researcher at the Clever Dog Lab in Vienna. Still wondering how much we can learn about canine communication through the human lens? “What we got was a very reduced visualization,” she said. “I think we could only see a glimpse into the mind and the learning process, such as a very specific question.” Satisfied that Bunny can talk? Does the bunny have to comply with every item on the language checklist or only the exact number? And how will it be determined? “If the dog’s AAC was as big as I thought it would be. as i think It will take a lot of people working on different racetracks from different angles to come to it from all sides,” Hunger said. On May 4, HarperCollins published “How Stella Learned to Talk” (episode This is a New York Times bestseller) alongside the release of Hunger’s Button, which is now being released in large quantities. Both online and in large stores (a box of four for $28.40) “I think this has the potential to change our relationship with dogs forever,” says Hunger. personal relationship She said she just heard Bunny press the “ouch” button on her board. A few minutes passed before Bunny pressed “stranger” and “paw” and then stretched out his arms to his owner. “I felt between her paws and found thorns in it,” Devine said. “Every time she chose to communicate with me in a way that wasn’t her natural way of communicating. It felt really special. If she goes out of her way because she trusts me and wants to get involved. ฉันก็รู้ว่าเธอรักฉัน” บทความนี้เดิมปรากฏใน The New York Times © 2021 The New York Times Company


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