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7;s how mRNA viruses like COVID-19 mutate, and why some viruses make it harder to develop vaccines.

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Johnson & Johnson’s COVID-19 vaccine activates a range of immune responses. A new study shows that The vaccine is highly protective in the United States. as well as in South Africa and Brazil. which have different types of virus a number in circulation

Harvard University researchers who developed a single shot vaccine found that people from different parts of the world of the world vaccinated against serious diseases regardless of viral variants.

Dr Dan Baruch, director of the Virology and Vaccine Research Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, said he was delighted to see the vaccine as effective in the real world as the study. in laboratory animals

“This is good news in terms of coverage of the species. and it is optimistic that the current vaccine especially this vaccine There is good coverage of different species. that exists today,” said Baruch, the developer’s research and laboratory leader. The harmless virus that transmits the vaccine. “That’s why everyone in the country and around the world should be vaccinated as soon as possible.”

All 20 patients studied neutralizing antibody production. which is believed to be necessary for an effective immune response to the virus. But they also produce other types of antibodies. including T cells which are often referred to as immune system soldiers.

Barouch, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, said people in Brazil and South Africa, where the deadly reproduction was found, produced five times less neutralizing antibodies than those exposed to the original SARS-CoV-2 virus. But they make other types of antibodies. almost equal And like many T cells, This may be why they are almost as protected from disease as they are. with those exposed to the original virus

In a large, phase 3 trial, the J&J vaccine was able to protect against severe/critical COVID-19 in 86% of recipients in the United States, 88% in Brazil and 82% in South Africa.

The new study “helps explain why the J&J vaccine works against the strains,” Barouch said. “We think it’s likely because the vaccine produces so many different immune responses.”

Barouch said he and his colleagues are still investigating why the vaccine appears to cause abnormal and dangerous blood clotting disorders in a small number of recipients.

Other vaccines are less effective in South Africa. The country has passed the vaccine by AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford. Because the vaccine is not enough protection.

In the laboratory, both vaccines Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna produce less neutral antibodies. Pfizer-BioNTech Company The research study was conducted by Pfizer-BioNTech In South Africa, 800 people said only nine were infected with COVID-19. which everyone received a placebo. not an active vaccine

In a recent study in Qatar, where the strain was originally found in the UK and South Africa, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was found to be effective in the United Kingdom and South Africa. It is almost 90% effective compared to the variant first found in the UK. It was formerly called B.1.1.7 and is now called Alpha variant, and 75% affects the variant first seen in South Africa, formerly known as B.1.351 and now Beta.

Contact Karen Weintraub at kweintraub@usatoday.com.

Patient health and safety coverage at USA TODAY is made possible in part by grants from the Masimo Foundation for Ethics, Innovation, and Competition in Healthcare. The Masimo Foundation does not provide editorial information.

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