Government Pharmaceutical Organization of Thailand via Agence France-Presse / Getty Images
The three types of COVID-19 vaccines that are available in the United States are safe and effective and are made in record time.
But not suitable
The ideal vaccine, in addition to being safe and effective, has a few other desirable characteristics, said Deborah Fuller, a vaccine researcher at the University of Washington.
The vaccine will be given “The single injection at constant room temperature works in all demographics, and even pushes beyond that should be handled manually,” she said.
Researchers are now accelerating the development of the next generation of the COVID-19 vaccine, using a range of innovative technologies to produce more convenient and potential options. Some of the new vaccines are already being tested in volunteers and may be available in the next year or so.
Scientists are exploring a series of changes that are likely to be popular among people who dislike needles.
“We wanted to develop a platform technology through which we could easily deliver vaccines, and obviously the easiest form of giving was a tablet,” said Sean Tucker, Vaxart Chief Scientific Officer.
The COVID-19 vaccine that Vaxart is developing is similar to that of Johnson & Johnson in that it uses a harmless virus to deliver commands to cells to create proteins that stimulate the immune response to the coronavirus.
But instead of adding the virus to the liquid, Vaxart dried it into a powder that could be formulated into tablets that could be stored at room temperature.
Another self-administered vaccine is the nasal spray vaccine. Frances Lund, president of the microbiology department at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, is working on that vaccine with the biotech company Altimmune. People by injection, the protection is systematic, that is, it is active throughout the body.
The oral vaccine, on the other hand, produces two types of immunity, Lund said. “But you will be immunized directly in the area where you vaccinated, too.”
That makes it harder for the corona virus to sneak through the nose.
Researchers are testing whether the nasal tablet and spray can be a standalone drug.
In addition to new methods of managing the COVID-19 vaccine, more potent versions are also on the horizon, meaning they will get a similar or better immune response from the reduced dose. down
One way to do that is by modifying so-called spike proteins, which stimulate the immune system’s response to the coronavirus.
Jason McLellan, a molecular biologist at the University of Texas at Austin, found that synthetic versions of the spike protein make the vaccine even more potent if you add two amino acids called proline. Now he’s making a version with six pro lines.
McLellan said it was It is a “huge increase” compared to the two pro line and is more stable too.
Another possible improvement is the method of containing the needle protein for delivery in the vaccine.
Jeff Baxter, CEO of VBI Vaccines, said his company is producing synthetic nanoparticles adorned with disruptive proteins that mimic the corona virus better.
“The size of these particles is great for fooling the immune system,” he said.
The immunized immune system responds as if it had encountered a real virus when harmless mimics were found. That’s all the secrets behind vaccines – getting your immune system ready if the real one comes along.
Another way to create something that looks like a virus. But it’s not actually the magnification of virus-like particles in plants. It turns out that if you give plants genetic instructions to make coronavirus proteins, they can also produce viral-like synthetic particles that can be used in vaccines.
Dr. Brian Ward is a medical officer at Medicago, one of the companies trying to use plant-based guidelines. He said it is uncommon and positive that there are several vaccines available to protect against one disease.
“That gave us the opportunity to do something that we hadn’t done before,” Ward said.
He said there is some evidence that starting with one vaccine and then switching to another might give you better immunity than a single vaccine that can do it yourself.
Ultimately, the most important feature to have is that the new vaccine should be able to be made and modified quickly in response to different strains as well as spreading quickly.
Dr. Nicole Luri is a strategic advisor to the CEPI, the Epidemic Preparedness Coalition. She said getting the current vaccine out in about a year was a great success.
“But a year was too long,” said Lurie. ‘OK, what do we have to do to do this in 100 days?’
Lurie said it was almost certain that the world would be exposed to new and dangerous microbes that needed a vaccine that would “Safe and effective, fast, easy to use, should be taken once”
In this way, she said “When the next door came, we were closer to the starting door than we were for this one.”