After the universe Was built, It took a few million years for the first light to penetrate the universe. The first stars began to form, and so did the ancient galaxies. As the gas and dust at the center of these galaxies begin to swirl around supermassive black holes, they form the brightest objects in the entire universe: quasars.
Quasars help us see what the universe looked like during childhood, and scientists can look back at these cosmic animals through time travel with a telescope.
Recently, a team of researchers announced the discovery of the most distant quasar ever, dating back 670 million years after the Big Bang. Quasars come with the oldest black holes ever observed. But the greatest age of this black hole is not the only distinctive feature. But very large And scientists can̵7;t explain how big it is.
The findings were announced Tuesday during the 237th meeting of the American Astronomical Society and are detailed in a study accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal Letters.
This is the background – Quasars were discovered in the 1960s, their names derive from what they are. A ‘semi-stellar body’ because a single quasar emits the same amount of light as a trillions of stars while occupying an area smaller than our solar system.
Scientists believe that quasars formed when galaxies contained large amounts of gas and dust surrounding the central black hole, which eventually swirled around and formed a collection of superheated material that spins around. Any
Due to its high energy, quasars tend to shine over the host galaxy.
What’s new – Scientists hunt for these ancient animals as they inform the state of the early universe and how galaxies formed and evolved over time. Quasars have also helped scientists better understand the relationship between galaxies and centered black holes.
A team of scientists at the University of Arizona were able to detect the most distant quasars ever observed, 13.03 billion light-years from Earth, meaning that quasars actually existed when the universe was only 670 million years old – just five percent. Of the current age (Astronomers believe the universe is 13.8 billion years old.)
The quasar, known as J0313-1806, is 10 trillion times brighter than the Sun and about a thousand times more energy than the entire Milky Way.
The quasar has a supermassive black hole in the center with a mass of 1.6 billion suns. This is compared to a supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way, which is 13.67. million Multiply the mass of the sun, that’s a pretty big boy.
The latest observations also show that quasars have a stream of hot gas emitted in the form of high-speed winds from around the black hole at a fifth the speed of light, according to the study.
This is what we don’t know – Scientists are confused about how this supermassive black hole was able to form and scale in the early days of the universe.In other words, how did it have time to reclaim so much of the surrounding material?
“The black hole created by the first large star could not grow to this size in just a few hundred million years,” said Feige Wang, a NASA Hubble fellow at the University of Arizona and lead author of the new paper in a statement.
Scientists believe that black holes formed after the death of massive stars, explosive supernovas, or by feeding on the first generation of stars that formed within galaxies. Then, they continued to grow, gobbling up the material around them.
The team behind the new study calculated that if black holes formed as early as 100 million years after the Big Bang and grew as fast as possible, there would still be about 10,000 solar masses and not numbers. 1.6 billion available today
“This tells you that whatever you do, the seed of this black hole must arise from a different mechanism,” said Xiaohui Fan, deputy chair of the University of Arizona’s Department of Astronomy and co-author of the study.
“In this case, massive quantities of extremely cold hydrogen gas collapse directly into the seed black hole.”
In addition to being too big for its own benefit, black holes consume a mass of 25 suns each year. Scientists believe that super-massive black holes in the early universe were the main reason ancient galaxies stopped making stars, with their black holes devouring all the gas and other materials needed to produce baby stars.
What’s next – The turbulent relationship between black holes and host galaxies in the early universe has made it difficult for scientists to study how galaxies formed and evolved over time and the effect of supermassive black holes on massive black holes. Their growth
The researchers hope to make further observations on the quasars, as well as to find more of them in the early universe following the launch of NASA’s James Webb Telescope, which is currently scheduled for October 31, 2021.
Abstract: The distant quasars are a unique tracker to study the formation of the earliest supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and the history of cosmic reion. Despite extensive efforts But only two quasars were found at z≥7.5 due to the combination of low spatial density and high contamination rates in the selective quasars. We report the discovery of the quasar illuminated at z = 7.642, J0313−1806, the farthest known quasar. This quasar has a bolomeric luminosity of 3.6 × 1013L⊙. Deep spectroscopy observations revealed a mass of SMBH (1.6 ± 0.4) × 109M⊙ in this quasar. The existence of large SMBHs only ∼670 million years after the Big Bang challenged a significant theoretical model of SMBH growth.In addition, the quasar spectrum exhibited the properties of broad absorbing lines (BAL) in CIV and SiIV. Its top speed is close to 20% of the speed of light.The relativistic BAL feature, combined with highly tuned blue CIV emission lines, indicates a strong galactic nucleus (AGN) driving the ejection in the system. this ALMA observations detect continuity of dust and [CII] Emissions from the host galaxy quasar produced a precise reddish shift of 7.6423 ± 0.0013, and indicated that the quasar was hosted by a dense star-forming galaxy with a star formation rate. 200 M⊙ yr – 1 and a dust mass of ∼7 × 107 m. This follow-up of the BAL quasar during the Reionization era provides an efficient investigation of the effect of AGN on galactic growth. Oldest large C