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Side effects, efficacy, and more – NBC Chicago

As many Johnson & Johnson vaccine appointments switch to Pfizer or Moderna vaccine doses due to the recommended pauses in Illinois and Chicago, what can people who were previously expecting a single-shot vaccine to expect?

Stopping J&J vaccination, though, may be temporary. But both cities and states have switched many of the clinics and vaccination activities to one of the remaining vaccines.

Dr. Anthony Fosy, White House chief medical advisor, said on Sunday he believes the United States is likely to resume Johnson & Johnson’s COVID-19 vaccine as soon as possible. This week, despite any warnings or restrictions attached.

Here is a breakdown of the Pfizer vaccine and its possible side effects, and how effective it is to believe.

What is the mRNA vaccine?

Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines differ from traditional vaccines in the use of mRNA.

Instead of introducing weak or inactive pathogens into your body, this vaccine injects mRNA, the genetic material our cells read to make protein into your upper arm muscles. It teaches your body how to make proteins that stimulate antibody production, so if the real virus later enters your body, your immune system will recognize it, according to the Federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

How effective are the Pfizer and Moderna COVID vaccines?

Questions about the effectiveness of the vaccine have been matched with the spread of multiple strains of COVID.

So far, studies have suggested that current vaccines can recognize new strains, but may not offer as much protection against new strains.

However, a recent Pfizer study suggests the vaccine is effective against the first emerging strains of the coronavirus in South Africa.

“These data also provide the first clinical results that vaccines can effectively protect against circulating variables, a key factor in reaching herd immunity and ending the epidemic for populations around the world,”

; said Ugur Sahin, CEO. And BioNTech co-founder said in a statement.

Moderna cited data from a Phase III clinical trial reporting that the COVID-19 vaccine was more than 90% effective in preventing COVID and more than 95% was able to prevent severe disease within six months of the second dose.

But a new generation of boosters and vaccines that are already targeting this strain are being explored.

Pfizer-Biotech is testing a third booster vaccine on people who are fully vaccinated. Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla said people “likely” will need a third COVID-19 vaccination within 12 months. After having a full vaccination

“The flexibility of our proprietary mRNA vaccine platform allows us to technically develop a booster vaccine in weeks if needed,” said Ugur Sahin, BioNTech CEO and co-founder, at the launch.

Late last month, the National Institutes of Health began testing a new coronavirus vaccine from Moderna with the aim of preventing a variant first discovered in South Africa, Moderna’s CEO Stephane Bancel told CNBC that the company hopes to Get booster vaccine for two doses of vaccine in the fall.

But what if there are no variables?

In clinical trials, Moderna’s vaccine reported 94.1% efficacy in preventing COVID-19 in subjects receiving both doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. 95% effective

A new CDC study reports that a single dose of Pfizer or Moderna COVID vaccine is 80% effective at preventing infection. That figure rose to 90% in the two weeks after the second dosing, a study on vaccinated health care workers showed.

“These findings indicate that the licensed mRNA COVID-19 vaccine is effective in preventing SARS-COVID-2 infection regardless of symptom status in working-age adults.” “The US agency wrote in the study. “COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for all eligible people.”

It is not known which vaccine prevents transmission of the virus by people asymptomatic.

Monica Hendrickson, public health administrator for the Peoria County Health Department, noted that each vaccine was highly effective against the deaths and serious morbidity of coronavirus.

“Really, you are looking for a difference from a clinical point of view, or from as you know the epidemiological perspective is very small compared to what we really hoped for: reduced mortality and severe illness.” Decrease in force They match the three vaccines, ”Hendrickson said,” although the bottom line is when these vaccines are on the market, if you have options for any of these, buy one of them. “

Hendrickson’s message echoes the words of Dr. Marina del Rios, emergency medicine specialist at the University of Illinois-Chicago during NBC 5’s “Vaccinated State” panel.

“Part of my message in the community is that vaccines on the market are equally effective and equally safe,” Del Rios said. “The best vaccine you can get is one that you can get first and for that. Get vaccinated earlier It sooner or later protects us from illness and our communities, which have been greatly damaged by this virus. ”

What are the potential side effects?

Side effects can occur after receiving a COVID vaccine currently available in the United States.

Experiencing side effects doesn’t always have to be a bad thing. Indeed, it is a signal that your body is responding.

“The good news for us is that a response is as fast as an effective response,” said Dr. Mark Lofman, chair of the family and community medicine division of Cook County Health in Illinois, telling NBC 5. Working power Our bodies produce a strong immune response, and we feel that’s a good thing, so we often see a vaccine with a higher rate of effectiveness.It also has more of the side effects or so-called symptoms because they work so well. ”

According to Pfizer, approximately 3.8% of clinical trial participants experienced fatigue as a side effect and 2% had headaches.

Moderna said 9.7% of the participants felt tired and 4.5% had headaches.

The CDC reports the most common side effects for the vaccine are at the injection site, including:

Common side effects on the body include:

  • tired
  • Headache
  • Sore muscles
  • Chills
  • fever
  • squeamish

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that patients stick to about 15 minutes after vaccination and who have a history of other allergies for 30 minutes so that they can follow up and treat immediately if they develop a reaction.

Are side effects more likely after the first or second dose?

With the two-shot vaccine, people are more likely to report side effects after a second dose, experts say.

According to the CDC, side effects after your second shot. “It may be more severe than what you find after the first shoot.”

“These side effects are normal signs your body is building protection and should go away within a few days,” the CDC said.

In trials with both the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines, more people experienced side effects after a second dose.

But that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t get a second shot if you get side effects after the first, experts say.

“When people get a second dose, they are given a second stimulant to try their best,” said UCSD infectious disease specialist Dr. Edward Kachay.

The CDC also notes that both shots are required.

“The COVID-19 vaccine, Pfizer-Biotech COVID-19 and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines require two shots to be as protected as possible,” the CDC said. Get a second vaccination even if you have any side effects after your first vaccination, unless your provider or doctor tells you not to receive it. “

Are some people prone to side effects?

In addition, there are certain factors that may make you more likely to experience side effects.

Chicago’s top physician said Thursday that younger people were more likely to experience side effects. “This is because younger people have stronger immune systems in a broader range.”

And according to Loafman, the immune system is what’s causing the symptoms.

“That’s just a reflection of the immune response, like we have when we are sick,” he said.

Arwady also noted that women were more likely to report side effects than men.

“Partly because women might be better journalists … but something is true too, because something else that is of interest to those who may not know enough about immunity are autoimmune diseases,” he said. It’s also very likely in women, ”says Arwady.“ And even more severe like allergic reactions, more severe allergic reactions are more likely to occur in women. ”

Why is that?

Arwady said estrogen can increase the immune response, while testosterone can decrease it. At the same time, she noted that Many of your “immune-modulating genes” can live on the “x” chromosome, where women have two while men have one.

“So there are all of these reasons why the general immunity in women is slightly different from that of men,” she said, “so we see women are slightly more likely to report certain side effects.”

Data from the CDC also report that women are more likely to experience side effects than men according to follow-up from the first month of vaccination.

From Dec. 14 to Jan. 13, women reported more than 79 percent of the side effects.Meanwhile, women received about 61.2 percent of the intake during that same period.

Side effects can vary depending on whether you have coronavirus or not.

“We saw that it was more likely that people would report some side effects because they act a little bit like a stimulant to your immune system,” Arwady said. “Your immune system has learned some lessons on how to prevent it. Itself, not in the long run, that is not a preventive method. “

“That should also be a booster effect,” Arwady said.

Loafman agreed.

“If you’ve been infected with COVID for a while, or you’ve got immunity, it’s more like a stimulant,” he says, “and boosters, for some people, are completely asymptomatic, boosters for others stimulate their immunity to. Against it

Health experts say that not getting side effects is not a negative effect.

“If you don’t get side effects, it doesn’t mean you won’t be protected,” Arwady said. “I want to be really clear about that.”

As Loafman said, it means “Your body is not as responsive to the inflammatory response as it should.

“You’re still making antibodies,” he said.

According to Loafman, everyone’s response is unique.

“It’s just a reflection of how unique each of our systems is, what other immunity we have,” he said. Each of our immune systems is a mosaic made up of everything we’ve been through and all we have. Each person’s response is different, and everyone receives an appropriate immune response.

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