Home / Science / The 45,000-year-old skull from Czech Republic is the oldest human genome ever found.

The 45,000-year-old skull from Czech Republic is the oldest human genome ever found.



The study found that the oldest DNA in human remains belongs to a woman who lived in Czech Republic more than 45,000 years ago.

Analysis of her skull revealed that she was one of the first Homo sapiens to inhabit Eurasia after our species emigrated from Africa.

It is believed that a woman called Zlatýkůň may have had only six or fewer generations of Neanderthals ancestors in her past.

The finding reinforces that humans mate with Neanderthals shortly after we first reached Europe between 50,000 and 45,000 years ago.

This mating event enabled humans to absorb the Neanderthal genes, which survived in all modern people except Africans.

Neanderthals will go extinct shortly after, some researchers say the race with the homosepians and the changing climate is to blame.

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In the picture of the human skull, a modern woman is called Zlatýkůň.  The genetic material obtained from this specimen is thought to be the oldest human DNA found in Europe, and proves that the homosepian that was bred with Neanderthals shortly after arriving in Europe.

In the picture of the human skull, a modern woman is called Zlatýkůň. The genetic material obtained from this specimen is thought to be the oldest human DNA found in Europe, and proves that the homosepian that was bred with Neanderthals shortly after arriving in Europe.

Excavations at Bashogiro Cave in Bulgaria.  Several pieces of modern human bones have been recovered from this layer along with a collection of stone tools, animal bones, bone tools and pendants.

Excavations at Bashogiro Cave in Bulgaria. Several pieces of modern human bones have been recovered from this layer along with a collection of stone tools, animal bones, bone tools and pendants.

Timeline of human mating with Neanderthals

50,000 years ago: Human immigrants from Africa.

About 48,000 years ago: Mixed events between Neanderthals and Homosepians Humans paired with Neanderthals for the first time.

45,000 years ago: The oldest living human fossils in Europe lived.

40,000 years ago: Neanderthals were extinct.

Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Germany attempted to find the skeletal remains using radiocarbon isotopes, a traditional and widely used method to find out when fossils lived.

However, contamination of the carcass made this impossible.

But Neanderthal DNA could be used as a dating proxy, as the length of parts in the genetic code steadily declined over the generations.

The researchers found in their study, published in Natural Ecology and Evolution, that Zlatýkůň had long, unbroken Neanderthal DNA scattered throughout her genome, indicating that she lived shortly after humans. Mating with Neanderthals

‘Our DNA analyzes show that Zlatýkůň lived closer to mixed events with Neanderthals,’ said Kay Prüfer, co-author of the study.

In fact, the team estimates that Zlatýkůň only lived 2,000 years after the first human-Neanderthal experiment.

The researchers found DNA from this individual and their populations in modern people either in Asia or Europe, who were later colonized by the Homosepians.

‘It’s quite interesting that the earliest humans in Europe were ultimately unsuccessful!’ Said Johannes Krause, senior author of the study and director of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

The scholars say the evidence means Czech individuals are almost older than other rivals, claiming to be the oldest human fossils in Europe.

Zlatýkůň bone sampling image from the base of the skull in a clean room at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

Zlatýkůň bone sampling image from the base of the skull in a clean room at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

It is believed that the Czech woman named Zlat kůň may have an ancestor of Neanderthals, dating back six generations or less.

It is believed that the Czech woman named Zlat kůň may have an ancestor of Neanderthals, dating back six generations or less.

Two studies published today looked at Homo sapiens' genetic data and the number of Neanderthal DNA present in their genomes.  One study was in Czech Republic and the other in Bulgaria.

Two studies published today looked at Homo sapiens’ genetic data and the number of Neanderthal DNA present in their genomes. One study was in Czech Republic and the other in Bulgaria.

Professor Chris Stringer, head of research in human evolution at the Natural History Museum, who was not involved in the research, said: ‘Some of Zlatýk กะโหลก’s skulls and skeletons were discovered in 1950 and are thought to be only 15,000 years old.

The new analysis of the woman’s skull contains radiocarbon that is approximately 34,000 years old, but genome data show that it is more than 10,000 years ago and may represent one of the oldest modern humans known from U. Resia until now ‘

Last year, researchers discovered human remains in a Bulgarian cave called Bachokiro, which they say likely cohabited with Neanderthals.

The cave was first discovered and excavated in the 1970s and is located 3 miles (5 km) from Dryanovo.

Teeth of a person found in the Bashogiro cave in Bulgaria.  Genome-wide data from this person indicates that he had fewer than six generations of Neanderthal ancestors before he lived.

Teeth of a person found in the Bashogiro cave in Bulgaria. Genome-wide data from this person indicates that he had fewer than six generations of Neanderthal ancestors before he lived.

Picture of the entrance of Bacho Khiro Cave  Excavations are within the entrance and on the left.  The cave is over 3 km long and is a popular tourist destination.

Picture of the entrance of Bacho Khiro Cave Excavations are within the entrance and on the left. The cave is over 3 km long and is a popular tourist destination.

A study published today in the journal Nature revealed more insights into these remains and found that they lived between 45,930 and 42,580 years ago today.

This discovery reverses last year’s claims that humans likely co-existed with Neanderthals thousands of years before our cousin species went extinct some 40,000 years ago.

Their genome analysis found that the three oldest people buried in the cave had more than three percent of Neanderthal DNA in their genomes.

Analysis of human fossils revealed that people routinely hunted bison and deer while also turning animal teeth into fashion accessories, something Neanderthals were known for.

An excavation picture at Bacho Giro Cave.  The excavator in the front is recording the invention.  (Each one is marked with a colored pin.) A pocket with a barcode is for each artifact when their location has been recorded with all stations.

An excavation picture at Bacho Giro Cave. The excavator in the front is recording the invention. (Each one is marked with a colored pin.) A pocket with a barcode is for each artifact when their location has been recorded with all stations.

The map shows the relative date that humans arrived on continents, including Europe, 45,000 years ago.All humanity began in Africa and went further after being scattered across the continent for thousands of years.

The map shows the relative date that humans arrived on continents, including Europe, 45,000 years ago.All humanity began in Africa and went further after being scattered across the continent for thousands of years.

Several cave bear teeth have also been discovered as personal ornaments at the Bulgarian site.

Professor Stringer added that the findings indicated that Homo sapiens had ‘multiple pulses’ spread throughout Eurasia.

He believed that the different waves of Homo sapien colonization would explain why the Zlatýkůň lineage was unsuccessful. It also means that there have been various inbreeding events with Neanderthals.

Timeline of human evolution and human growth with other species

A million years ago – Homosepians (Modern humans), Denisovans, Neanderthals and unidentified ‘ghost’ populations have not evolved. All that exists is a common ancestor.

Some theories claim that this might be Homo erectus or Homo heidelbergensis.

700,000 to 300,000 years ago – Neanderthals separated from their common ancestors to create their own species and migrate to western Eurasia.

765,000 to 550,00 years ago – Denisovans isolated and created their own species and dominated Eastern Eurasia.

130,000 years ago – The common ancestor in Africa evolved into what we are known today as Homo sapiens.

100,000 years ago – A big wave of Homo sapiens emigrated from Africa and into the Levant.

75,000 years ago – Neanderthals branched eastward and met Denisovan. Both of these species later breed.

50,000 years ago – Homosepians began to immigrate into Europe.

45,000 years ago – Denisovans and Neanderthals are breeding with Homo sapiens in Asia and Europe respectively.

40,000 years ago – Denisovans and Neanderthals are extinct.

15,000 years ago – Homosepian immigrated to the American continent.


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