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The first NASA Perseverance Rover weather report from Jezero Crater on Mars.

Perseverance Mars Rover uses a wind sensor.

One of the wind sensors aboard NASA’s Mars rover Perseverance can be seen from a pole in this image taken March 1, 2021, Tuesday, the 10th, or Seoul of the mission. The sensors are part of a series of weather sensors called MEDA. Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech.

Perseverance’s MEDA will help us understand how to prepare astronauts for the future on the Red Planet.

Weather often plays a role in our daily plans. You may wear a light jacket when the forecast calls for cool winds or delays your travel plans due to an impending storm. NASA Engineers also use weather data to inform their plans, which is why they analyze conditions millions of miles away. Mars.

The Mars Environmental Dynamics Analysis System (MEDA) on NASA’s Perseverance rover first powered for 30 minutes on Feb. 19, about a day after the rover touched the red planet around 8:25 p.m. PST On the same day, the engineer received initial data from MEDA.

“After the close approach to the nail biting and landing process, our MEDA team anxiously awaited the first information to confirm our equipment landed safely,” said Jose Antonio Rodriguez Manfredi, MEDA Principal Investigator with Centro de Astrobiología. (CAB) at the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial in Madrid, “That’s a moment of intense intensity and excitement. Finally, after years of work and planning, we received our first data report from MEDA, our system was alive and sent the first meteorological data and images from SkyCam. ”

Mars Environmental Dynamic Analyzer MEDA

The wind sensors that are part of the MEDA toolkit can be seen from the poles of NASA’s Mars rover Perseverance in images taken before the rover launches. Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech.

The MEDA weighs about 12 pounds (5.5 kg) and has a set of environmental sensors to record dust levels and six different atmospheric conditions: wind (both speed and direction), pressure, relative humidity, air temperature, ground temperature and radiation (from both the Sun and space). The system wakes itself every hour and after recording and storing the data it will go into sleep mode independent of the rover operation. The system records information whether the rover is awake day and night.

When engineers obtained MEDA’s first point on Earth, the team compiled the first weather report from Jezero Crater on Mars.

The data showed that it was below minus 4 degrees. Fahrenheit (Minus 20 degrees Celsius) On the surface when the system started recording and that temperature dropped to 14 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 25.6 degrees Celsius) within 30 minutes.

MEDA’s radiation and dust sensors showed Jezero was experiencing a cleaner atmosphere than the Gale Crater, at the same time, about 2,300 miles (3,700 kilometers) away, according to the Land Vehicle Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS). The Curiosity rover stationed within Gale and MEDA pressure sensors told engineers that the pressure on Mars was 718 Pascal, in the 705-735 Pascal range predicted by their model for that time on the planet. Tuesday

Bridge the atmosphere gap

Thanks to the telescopes on Earth and the spacecraft orbiting Mars, scientists have a good understanding of the Red Planet’s climate and even insights into the size of Mars’ one-year dust storms. (Two years of Earth) However, predicting dust lift and displacement, or how small storms evolve into massive storms that surround the entire planet, will benefit future science and exploration missions.

Mars Perseverance Rover MEDA

MEDA highlights on the Mars rover 2020.Credits: NASA / JPL-Caltech.

Over the next year, MEDA will provide valuable data on temperature cycles, heat fluxes, dust cycles and how dust particles react with light, ultimately affecting both temperature and weather. As important as the readings of the solar radiation intensity, cloud formation and wind in the MEDA area, it may inform the design of a planned Mars sample return mission. The measurements will also help engineers better understand how to prepare humans and their habitats to better cope with conditions on Mars.

REMS on the Curiosity rover currently provides similar day-to-day weather and atmosphere data.The MEDA is an international collaboration, it is built on the installation of a REMS independent weather station, and with minor upgrades. The system is made by Spain and developed by CAB with help from the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The US donation was funded by the Game Changing Development program within NASA’s Space Technology Mission Committee.

With higher overall durability and additional temperature readings, MEDA was able to record temperatures at three atmospheric heights: 2.76 ft. (0.84 m), 4.76 ft. (1.45 m) and 98.43 ft. (30 m) in addition to surface temperatures. The system uses sensors at the rover’s body and masts and an infrared sensor that can measure temperatures nearly 100 feet higher than the rover.MEDA also records near-surface radiation budgets, which will help prepare them for an upper human exploration mission. Future mars

Mastcam Z Fan-shaped sludge remnants

From the Octavia E Butler Landing site, NASA’s Perseverance rover can see fan-shaped sediments called delta with the Mastcam-Z instrument.Scientists believe the delta is the remnant of the confluence between rivers. Ancient to the lake at Mars’ Jezero Crater.Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech.

With the MEDA weather report, engineers now have atmospheric data from three different locations on the Red Planet: Perseverance, Curiosity, and NASA’s InSight landing, which houses temperature and wind sensors for all three InSight (TWINS) locations. People will help to deepen their understanding of Mars weather patterns, events and atmospheric turbulence that could influence planning for future missions. In the near term, MEDA data will help determine the best atmospheric conditions for Ingenuity Mars Helicopter flights.

As the intelligence reaches its pre-flight goals, the MEDA report from Tuesdays 43 and 44, or April 4 of the mission (April 3-4 on Earth) showed temperatures as high as minus 7.6 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 22 degrees Celsius). ) And low of minus 117.4 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 83 degrees Celsius) in the Jezero Crater.MEDA also measured gusts of wind at 22 mph (10 meters per second).

“We are thrilled to see MEDA perform well,” said Manuel de la Torre Juárez, MEDA Deputy Principal Inspector at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California. “The MEDA report will provide a better picture of the environment. Closer to the surface, data from MEDA and other instrumental experiments will reveal more mysteries on Mars and help prepare humans for exploration. We hope the data will strengthen our design and our mission more secure. ”

More about perseverance

The main objective for Perseverance’s mission on Mars was astrology, as well as to search for signs of ancient microbial life. The rover will describe the planet’s geological features and past climates, paving the way for human exploration of the red planet, and will be the first to collect and collect Martian rocks and rock minerals. (Broken stone and dust)

NASA’s subsequent mission, in collaboration with the ESA (European Space Agency), will send spacecraft to Mars to collect these sealed samples from the surface and send them back to Earth for in-depth analysis.

The Mars 2020 Perseverance mission is part of NASA’s Moon to Mars approach, which includes the Artemis to the Moon mission that will help prepare them for human exploration of the Red Planet.

JPLManaged by NASA by Caltech in Pasadena, California, builds and manages Perseverance rover operations.

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