In making breakthrough discoveries, scientists have made the most distant discoveries. Quasars Also known and home to supermassive black holes
Astronomers, led by researchers at the University of Arizona, have discovered a wonderful quasar located 13.03 billion light-years away from Earth.Quasars are one of the brightest objects in the universe.The quasars are the nuclei of galaxies. Illuminated Z powered by supermassive mass Black hole That actively eats nearby materials
When this material is absorbed, the quasar emits a super-bright beam of electromagnetic radiation. Scientists suspect that these luminous and supermassive objects could be an evolutionary step for some galaxies. In fact, scientists predict that, on average, this quasar̵7;s black hole will consume as much mass as 25 suns every year.
This quasar, called J0313-1806, can be traced back only 670 million years ago. Big Bang (The universe at this time is only 5% of its current age), making it the most distant and oldest quasar ever found. This quasar also contains a supermassive black hole with a mass of 1.6 billion our sun.
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The record-breaking quasar
While the newly discovered quasar is alarmingly old and distant, the team’s observations also show that there are The wind of the extremely hot gas was flowing. Around the galaxy’s supermassive black hole, this gas travels at a fifth speed of light. According to the statementIf the strong winds from this quasar coming from the most distant quasar have ever seen were not interesting enough, the team found that Dynamic star formation activity In galaxies that hold quasars
J0313-1806 is estimated to produce approximately 200 solar masses every year, compared to the Milky Way’s one solar mass per year, according to the statement.
“This is a relatively high rate of star formation, as observed in other quasars of a similar age, and it tells us that host galaxies are growing very fast,” said lead author Feige Wang, who is also an author of the study. A Hubble fellow from the University of Arizona’s Steward Observatory. Said in the same statement.
The Quasar investigation
Now, because of their close relationship, scientists are thinking that by studying quasars, they can learn more about how these objects are and how supermassive black holes behave.
While this Kwazaris is only 20 million light years from Earth than the last time it took office. But this new record-holder’s supermassive black hole is about twice as heavy as its predecessor. This detail could change the way scientists understand the relationships between these super-massive and extremely bright cosmic objects.
“This is the earliest evidence to show how supermassive black holes affect the surrounding host galaxies,” Wang said. “By observing galaxies that are less distant, we know this. Must happen But we’ve never seen it happen so fast in the universe. ”
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How do you make a supermassive black hole?
Quasars like J0313-1806 that have accumulated massive black holes for a short time in the early universe have puzzled scientists for years. While black holes can be created when stars explode. Supernova And collapsing and tiny black holes can join together, eventually forming masses. These supermassive early cosmic quasars remain mysterious. Why are they growing so fast?
With the “new” quasars to be studied, the team narrowed the limits of how such supermassive black holes can acquire that mass and form in such a short time. The quasar’s black hole is too large to be explained by past theories. In fact, the team thinks that even though black holes were formed as early as 100 million years after the Big Bang and growing fastest. But it’s still only 10,000 times the size of the Sun, and 1.6 billion times as massive.
“This tells you that whatever you do, the seeds of this black hole must be formed by different mechanisms,” said Xiaohui Fan, co-author, professor and assistant chair of the Astronomy Department at the University of Arizona. “In this case, massive amounts of early cold hydrogen gas would collapse directly into the seed black hole …” In order for the black hole to grow to the size we saw in J0313-1806, it had to start. Out with a black hole with at least 10,000 solar masses, and that is only possible in a direct collapse scenario.
The team hopes to find more “born” quasars around this same time in the early universes to help them explore further and better understand how such a massive and powerful object was possible. how
“Our quasars covered a very wide area, allowing us to scan almost half of the sky,” said Jinyi Yang, co-author Peter A. Strittmatter Fellow of the Steward Observatory in the same statement. “We have selected additional candidates, which we will follow up with more detailed observations.”
Yang added that future observations with a space telescope such as NASA’s. James Webb Space Telescope Able to drive such research better
“With the ground-based telescope, we can only see the source of the point,” Wang said. How far has it been, and that will give us a much better idea of the stages of its evolution. “
This work is accepted for publication in journals. Astrophysical Journal Letters and presented Jan. 12, 2021 at The 237th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society.
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