It’s a very intuitive idea: would it be best to get the COVID-19 vaccine in a place that will enter the body first?
Altimmune, a Maryland-based biotech company, is working to develop a vaccine against COVID-19 that is injected into your nose without stabbing it in your arm.
“Buddy Creech, curator of the Vanderbilt University vaccine research program and working with Altimmune, told Insider. And neck So it makes sense, at least we should consider a vaccine that can build immunity in the mouth of mucous membranes.
All three types of COVID-19 vaccines are licensed in the United States as all vaccines. Although they seem to inhibit transmission of the infection. But it̵7;s unlikely they’ll stop it. Oral vaccines can create additional defenses because they stimulate the immune system to make antibodies that block infections in the mucous membranes of your nose and throat. That prevents transmission by stopping the spread of the virus from the oral cavity.
Last month, Altimmune launched a trial of a 180-person oral vaccine called AdCOVID to test the vaccine’s safety, side effects, and the levels of antibodies and generated T-cells. To 55 years, the company expects data in the second quarter of this year.
Scot Roberts, Altimmune Chief Scientific Officer, told Insider that the best scenario will roll out to adults later this year or early 2022.
Other intranasal vaccine candidates are currently being tested in China, India and the UK.
Nasal sprays can prevent the flow of the virus from the nose and throat.
AdCOVID is not the first vaccine without a needle. The polio vaccine is swallowed as the first tablet, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has approved a range of nasal spray influenza vaccines.
However, vaccines that are injected into the muscle of the arm are the most common. These stimulate your immune system to start producing T-cells that recognize pathogens if they return, and virus-fighting antibodies throughout your body, known as the immune system.
But these antibodies don’t always flow into mucous surfaces covering the nose and throat. (Where respiratory viruses like to hang out) in large enough to stop the virus from reproducing there.
Nasal sprays can stimulate your immune system to produce an antibody called immunoglobulin A in the area of your cervix, says Dr. Gov. Says Paul Goepfert, director of the Alabama Vaccine Research Clinic.
“It is likely this will be a more effective vaccine in reducing the spread of the coronavirus,” Goepfert told Insider.
Altimmune was found in recent animal studies that the oral COVID-19 vaccine stimulates both the immune system and the mucosal immunity. Two other animal studies found that the oral spray protected against infection while nearly blocking the transmission of coronavirus.
The nasal spray can act as a stimulant for targeting different strains of the corona virus.
The spread of coronavirus strains raised concerns that existing vaccines would need to be supplemented with vaccination. Pfizer and Moderna are testing a new version of the shot to combat the variant. But distributing it can be another great task.
The major advantage of Altimmune sprays is that they do not need to be refrigerated and can be kept at room temperature for several months.
“If we need to be re-vaccinated or to replenish immunity when there is a variable, this approach makes sense,” Roberts said.
Daniel Oran and Eric Topol, two COVID-19 researchers at the Scripps Research Translational Institute in California, say oral vaccines can help because people may be able to vaccinate themselves.
“It’s more convenient to give someone a nasal spray than with a manual injection,” they wrote in Scientific American on Monday. They also pointed out that changing the needle for the spray could encourage more people to get vaccinated in the first place.
Altimmune hopes to test the spray on children this year.
Altimmune plans to test the oral vaccine in children and is talking to the Food and Drug Administration about how to try these pediatric trials.The company hopes to launch a pediatric trial while the drug is still being tested. In adults
No COVID-19 vaccine is licensed in the United States.It can be given to children under 16 because companies didn’t include children in early trials.
“The children were not very sick. But they are sure they can transmit the virus, so the concept of transmembrane immunity is ideal for the young population, ”Roberts said. “Clearly, the FDA is aware of the need. We cannot leave 70 million Americans by their bodies without being vaccinated.”
Goepfert said developing a nasal spray vaccine for children would be a win-win: It would disrupt their ability to transmit infection and make it easier to vaccinate.
“Not having to be attached to someone is of particular interest to pediatricians,” he said.