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The source of the harmful high-energy particles located in the sun.

The source of the harmful high-energy particles located in the sun.

The Corona Mass Ejaculation, or CME, erupted into space on August 31

, 2012.This image is a mixed version of 171 and 304 anstrom wavelengths taken from Solar Dynamics Observatory.Credit: NASA / GSFC / SDO.

The potentially dangerous source of solar particles emitted by the Sun at high speeds during storms in the outside atmosphere has been identified for the first time by UCL and George Mason University, Virginia, U.S. researchers.

These particles are highly electrically charged and, if they reach the Earth’s atmosphere, could destroy satellites and electronic infrastructure, as well as posing a radiation risk for astronauts and people in planes in the so-called 1859. The Carrington incident, a massive solar storm, has crashed telegraph systems across Europe and America. With the modern world relying too much on electronic infrastructure, the potential for harm is greater.

To minimize the harm to a minimum, scientists are trying to understand how these particles form so that they can better predict when they will affect the Earth.

In a new study published in Scientific breakthroughThe researchers analyzed the composition of solar particles headed towards Earth and found that it had the same “fingerprints” as the plasma in the low sun’s corona near the central region of the Sun’s chromosphere. A

Co-author Dr. Stephanie Yardley (UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory, MSSL) said: “In our study, we observed for the first time that solar particles came from the sun for the first time. There is a high electric charge. From plasma trapped low in the Sun’s atmosphere by a strong magnetic field, these powerful particles, once released, are accelerated by eruptions moving at a speed of a few thousand kilometers per second.

“The powerful particles can reach Earth very quickly, in minutes to a few hours, with these events lasting for days. It is very challenging to predict these events. Before that happens, by better understanding the processes of the Sun, we can improve our forecast so that when a major solar storm occurs, we have time to take action to reduce the risk.

Lead author Dr. David Brooks (George Mason University and Honorary Associate Professor at UCL MSSL) said: “Our observations provide a tantalizing picture of how the material that produces solar particles comes from a few events from the solar cycle. Our last time Now a new solar cycle has begun and as it begins we will use the same technique to see if our results are true or if these events are unusual.

“We are fortunate that our understanding of the mechanisms behind solar storms and solar particles is likely to advance rapidly over the coming years due to data that will be obtained from two spacecraft, ESA’s Solar Orbiter, and NASA’s Solar Orbiter.” Parker Solar Probe that is headed Closer to the sun than any spacecraft has ever had “

In the study, the researchers used measurements from NASA’s Wind satellite, located between the Sun and the Earth, to analyze a set of solar particles, each taken at least a day.In January 2014, they compared this to. Spectroscopy data from JAXA-Lead Hinode spacecraft (EUV Imaging Spectrometer aboard the spacecraft created by UCL MSSL and Dr.Brooks is a member of the Japan mission’s operational team).

They found that the solar particles measured by the Wind satellites have the same chemical signature, that is, they contain a lot of silicon compared to sulfur, as the plasma is confined near the top of the chromosphere. The shear of the sun These positions are at the “footrest” of the hot corona loop, that is, at the bottom of the loop of the magnetic field and the plasma that extends into the Sun’s outer atmosphere and back again.

The team used a new technique to measure the strength of the corona magnetic field at these foot points and found that they were extremely high in the 245 to 550 gauss region, confirming the theory that plasma is trapped in the Sun’s atmosphere. With a strong magnetic field Before launching into space

Solar particles are emitted from the sun and accelerated by solar flares. (Large explosion) or corona mass ejection – ejaculation from clouds, plasma and large magnetic fields. Approximately 100 solar particle events occur every 11 solar cycles, although this number varies from cycle to cycle.

The latest findings support the idea that some solar particles originate from a different source than the slow solar wind. (Origin, which is still controversial), as they are confined to specific conditions in the hot corona at the core of the source area. The faster solar wind is constantly being emitted by the sun. Confrontation with the Earth’s atmosphere can bring out the northern lights.

The high-energy particles released in January 2014 came from a fluctuating region of the Sun, which has frequent solar flares and CMEs and a very strong magnetic field. This region, called 11944, was one of the largest active solar regions at the time, and observers on Earth saw it as a blackout on Earth, a dark spot on the sun’s surface.

A strong radiation storm alert was issued at the time by the NOAA / NWS Space Weather Forecast Center, but the solar particle incident was not known to cause any disruption within Earth’s atmosphere, although the computer system aboard the Hinode spacecraft recorded the incident. Collisions of particles many times.

The internal magnetic field strength of 11944 was measured in a separate study shortly after this period, and it is one of the highest recorded in the Sun, 8.2kG.

Hole corona during peak sunlight

More information:
“Sources of major solar particle events from the super active region 11944” Scientific breakthrough (2021) .advances.sciencemag.org/lookup… .1126 / sciadv.abf0068

Provided by University College London

Reference: Sources of dangerous high-energy particles in the Sun (2021, March 3) .Retrieved March 3, 2021 from https://phys.org/news/2021-03-source-hazardous-high-energy- particles-sun.html

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