Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the main drivers of global warming. After the gas is released into the atmosphere, it stays there, making it difficult for heat to escape and warming the world in the process.
Much of it is liberated from the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas, as well as cement production.
The average monthly concentration of CO2 in Earth’s atmosphere as of April 2019 was 413 parts per million (ppm). Before the Industrial Revolution, the concentration was only 280 ppm.
CO2 concentrations have fluctuated over the past 800,000 years between 180 and 280ppm, but have been greatly accelerated by human-caused pollution.
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) comes from the combustion of fossil fuels, vehicle exhaust emissions, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers used in agriculture.
Although there is much less NO2 in the atmosphere than CO2, it is 200 to 300 times more efficient at trapping heat.
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is mainly produced by the combustion of fossil fuels. But can also be emitted from the exhaust pipe as well.
SO2 can react with water, oxygen and other chemicals in the atmosphere to produce acid rain.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an indirect greenhouse gas when it reacts with hydroxyl radicals and gets rid of it. Hydroxyl radicals reduce the service life of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.
What is dust?
Particles refer to a small portion of a solid or liquid material in air.
Some of them are visible like dust, while others are not visible to the naked eye.
Materials such as metals, microplastics, soil and chemicals can stay in the dust.
Dust particles (or PM) are described in micrometers. The two main things mentioned in the report and the study are PM10 (less than 10 micrometers) and PM2.5 (less than 2.5 micrometers).
Air pollution comes from the burning of fossil fuels, cars, cement making and agriculture.
Scientists measure the rate of airborne particles with cubic meters.
Dust is carried into the air by a number of processes including burning fossil fuels, driving cars and steelmaking.
Why are particles dangerous?
The particles are dangerous because they are less than 10 micrometers in diameter, can penetrate deep into the lungs or even enter the bloodstream. Particles were found in higher concentrations than in urban areas, especially along main roads.
Effect on health
What kinds of health problems can cause pollution?
According to the World Health Organization, one third of deaths from stroke, lung cancer and heart disease can be linked to air pollution.
Some of the effects of air pollution on the body are not understood. But the pollution can increase inflammation, which narrows the arteries, leading to a heart attack or stroke.
Also, nearly 1 in 10 people with lung cancer in the UK are caused by air pollution.
The particles will find their way into the lungs and get stuck there, causing inflammation and damage. In addition, certain chemicals in the particles that enter the body can cause cancer.
Death from pollution
About seven million people die prematurely due to air pollution every year. Pollution can cause problems such as asthma, stroke, various cancers and cardiovascular problems.
Air pollution can cause problems for people with asthma for a number of reasons. Pollutants in traffic fumes can irritate the airways, and dust can enter the lungs and throat and inflame these areas.
Trouble getting pregnant
Women exposed to air pollution before pregnancy were 20 percent more likely to have babies with birth defects, according to research recommended in January 2018.
Living within 5 miles (5km) of a highly polluted area a month before conception makes women more likely to give birth to babies with defects such as cleft palate or lips, according to a Cincinnati University study. Nati found
For every 0.01 mg / m3 increase in fine air particles, the resulting defect increased by 19 percent.
Previous research suggests this causes birth defects due to women with inflammation and stress.
What is being done to tackle air pollution?
Paris Agreement on Climate Change
The Paris Agreement, first signed in 2015, is an international agreement to control and limit climate change.
Hopefully, it will keep the global average temperature rise below 2 ° C (3.6oF) ‘and try to limit the rise to 1.5 ° C (2.7 ° F)’.
Carbon neutral by 2050
The UK government has announced plans to make the country carbon neutral by 2050.
They plan to do this by planting more trees and installing technology. ‘Carbon capture’ at the source of pollution
Some critics are concerned that the government will use this first option to export carbon offset to other countries.
The international carbon credit allows countries to remain carbon-neutral while paying for tree planting elsewhere to balance their emissions.
There are no new gasoline or diesel vehicles by 2040.
In 2017, the UK government announced a ban on the sale of new gasoline and diesel vehicles by 2040.
However, MPs on the Climate Change Committee have urged the government to bring the ban into 2030, then they will have a similar range and price.
The Paris Agreement, first signed in 2015, is an international agreement to control and limit climate change.Image: 2019 Paris Air Pollution.
Norwegian electric vehicle subsidies
The rapid electrification of Norway’s fleet of motor vehicles is largely due to generous state subsidies. Almost all electric cars are exempt from numerous taxes levied on gasoline and diesel vehicles that make them competitive.
A VW Golf with a standard combustion engine costs nearly 334,000 kroner (€ 34,500, $ 38,600), while its electric cousin e-Golf costs 326,000 kroner due to the lower tax difference.
Criticisms of the inaction of climate change
The Climate Change Committee (CCC) has said the government lacks ‘shocking’ arrangements for the risks to the country from climate change.
The committee assessed 33 areas to address the risks of climate change – from flood resilience properties to their impacts on farmland and supply chains, and found no real progress in any area. Any
The UK is not prepared for global warming 2 ° C, a level that countries have pledged to keep temperatures high. But the only 4 ° C increase, which is possible if greenhouse gases are not cut off globally.
It added that cities needed more green space to stop the city’s ‘hot island’ impact and to prevent flooding by causing heavy rains.