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This dam acts like a water cannon. Let’s do physics!



when people build Dams—giant walls blocking all lakes and rivers—they had to create an overflow channel known as an overflow channel. which is to alleviate the flood

Drains can be something simple. like a way for water to flow through the top of the dam or more complex, such as side channels Sometimes there’s just a big hole in the bottom of the dam (dry side) so that water can gush out like a big water cannon. Here’s how it works at the Funil Hydroelectric Plant in Brazil. There’s a nice video showing the water coming out—it looks like a river in the air. because basically is river in the air

But really cool physics. Of this overflow channel is that the speed of water coming out of the hole largely depends on the depth of the water behind the dam. when the water comes out of the pipe It will act like a ball thrown at the same speed. Yes, you know what I̵

7;m going to do: I’m going to use the water path out of the drain to estimate the water depth in the reservoir.

It’s actually named for the relationship between water flow and depth. It’s called Torricelli’s law. Imagine that you have a bucket full of water. Then drill holes in the side near the bottom. We can use physics to find the velocity of water as it flows.

Start by considering the short-term changes in water level as the water runs out. Here is the diagram:

Illustration: Rhett Alllain

Looking at the top of the tank The water level will drop—even if it’s just a little. It doesn’t matter how much the water level drops. What we’re interested in is the mass of this water. which I wrote dmIn physics, we use “d” for different amounts of matter. So this might be a small amount of water. The lower water level at this top means that the water has to go. somewhere. In this case, it will leave the hole. The mass of the discharged water must be equal to d.m. (You have to keep track of all the water)

Now let’s think about it from a power point of view. water is a closed system So the total power must be constant. In this case, there are two types of energy to think about. First, there is the gravitational potential energy (ug = mgy). This is the energy associated with the height of an object above the earth’s surface. and depends on the height, mass and gravitational field (g = 9.8 N/kg). The second type of energy is kinetic energy (K = (1/2)mv2). which is the energy that depends on the mass and velocity (V) of the object




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