Home / World / We know that vaccines are effective against new strains of coronavirus. Now scientists are beginning to understand why.

We know that vaccines are effective against new strains of coronavirus. Now scientists are beginning to understand why.



Early laboratory studies are worrisome. It shows that the vaccine appears to produce much less antibodies against the virus compared to some of the newer strains. But real-world experiences don’t meet those concerns. People seem to have developed good defenses. even when faced with new variables

After months of research Vaccine experts around the world are learning that most vaccines still work. Although those antibodies are not expressed in large numbers. Other important thanks of the body’s immune system

Dr Dan Baruch, director of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center̵

7;s Virology and Vaccine Research Center, said: “One of the reasons vaccines are resistant to a variety of strains “We speculate that multiple immune parameters may affect the protection observed in this vaccine against variables.”

In a recent study, Barouch and some colleagues showed that Johnson & Johnson’s vaccines stimulate different parts of the immune system to react. Most importantly, the study reinforces the importance of so-called “killer T cells” in protecting against viral variants, including the first of all the worrisome “beta” variants. in south america

Dr. Paul Goepfert, professor of medicine at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, said: “Killer T-cells are important because they can identify infected cells and eliminate them. Therefore, it helps to eliminate infection very well. and vaccine design specialists

the body’s ability to control parts of the immune system after vaccination against COVID-19 original species Still leads to strong protection from many species.

back in december When news of a worrisome variable comes in the UK which is now called the alpha variable. Some vaccine experts are concerned that the new version of the virus might undercut vaccine prices.

The news was even more troubling. This is because the vaccines that are currently available are only being licensed. a week later The world learned about the beta variant from South Africa and the gamma variant from Brazil.

Vaccine companies are beginning to prepare to test new boosters targeting these variables. but in the real world Vaccines continue to offer good protection to people living in countries where new strains are prevalent.

Barouch’s new research offers some clues as to why.

The human immune system consists of several components that help fight viral infections by making antibodies. which is a protein created to resist foreign matter and also looking for infection Destroy and memorize them to be able to fight better and faster next time.

as in previous studies This study showed that these variants had mutations that were not well tolerated by antibodies generated after vaccination or infection. In fact, antibody levels from the J&J vaccine were 5.0 times lower than that of antibodies. Covid-19 virus The first detected in South Africa was 3.3 times lower than the gamma variant found in Brazil. This is similar to that found in other countries vaccines.

But antibodies don’t tell the whole story.

Dr Anna Durbin, an infectious disease physician and Johns Hopkins Professor of Global Epidemiology and Disease Control, said: “We do not need to rely on the amount of antibodies in our blood while that is exposed to something to protect us.” We have an immune response to memory. So when we see that germ again Our bodies will produce more antibodies. It produces T cells in response to that, which are actually ready to control that infection.”

So, even if fewer antibodies are produced, other parts of the immune system are ready to recognize and fight infection. she added and even if the vaccinated person is re-infected The severity of the illness also tends to decrease.

“The J&J vaccine provokes a really good Killer T-cell response, and although they may infect These Killer T cell responses can help eradicate that infection very quickly,” Goepfert said.

The real-world data Durbin cited shows that vaccination provides “…really excellent protection from severe hospitalized COVID caused by variables. And I think that might be due to the immune response we have. and the T-cell response we have that can clean up that virus if we’re infected.”

Onyema Okolo, MD, an oncologist and hematologist at the University of Arizona Cancer Center in Tucson. Be a contributor to the ABC News medical unit.


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