It’s too early to tell But experts are close to cracking it.
“We will have to see how all of these interact. Could it be that we’re going to need a sponsor at some point? Yes, is that possible? Yes, we know exactly when, no,” said Marks. Maybe sooner or later Hopefully it will pass a year after getting the vaccine for the average adult.”
And experts emphasize that everyone currently fully vaccinated should be protected. But the reason why the timeline for the potential activator remains unclear is because scientists still need time to assemble it. Information about immunity to COVID-19 How long will it last in the future? and how to distinguish factors in the future
And although some people have recovered from previous infections and have natural immunity. Vaccination can also improve their immune memory.
immunization vaccine manufacturers
Three coronavirus vaccines are currently licensed for emergency use in the United States: two doses of the Pfizer/BioEntech vaccine for children 12 years and older; Two doses of Moderna vaccine for ages 18 and older; and a single dose of Johnson & Johnson vaccine for ages 18 and older.
All three companies are investigating the potential of using boosters.
Vaccine makers are investigating whether the immunity these vaccines produce may decrease over the long term, i.e. possibly after a year or longer. and whether they are protected by coronavirus strains that may appear and evolve.
if so Those who are vaccinated may need a booster vaccine to prevent infection with both existing and new coronavirus strains. This is quite similar to the recommended tetanus vaccination every 10 years, or a different influenza vaccination each year.
Still, doctors are worried that the coronavirus will become like the flu. which requires a new vaccine every year both because the circulating species mutated rapidly. And because the immunity from the vaccine quickly wears off.
“Therefore, cellular immunity may reduce disease severity in some infections caused by variants that escape neutralizing antibodies,” according to the CDC.
Immunity can last much longer. Researchers just need time to assess.
That level can measure whether a fully vaccinated person will eventually develop a more serious infection. or have an infection that is severe enough to require hospitalization
“For me that is the threshold,” Adalja said.
meanwhile Studies on the natural immunity from previous coronavirus infections have continued longer than relatively recent vaccine trials.
The latest research on long-lasting immunity
Two new studies this week add more and more evidence. that indicates natural immunity to coronavirus after a person has recovered from COVID-19 It may last a long time – maybe at least a year. But that doesn’t mean they shouldn’t be vaccinated. That doesn’t mean immunity lasts forever.
Bone marrow cells may keep memories of Covid-19 for at least 11 months after someone has been infected. These cells are a source of “essential” protective antibodies, according to a new study published in Nature.
Researchers from Washington University in St. Louis It examined blood samples from 77 previously infected people with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Researchers found that antibodies to Covid-19 initially decreased after infection. But over four to 11 months, the decline slowed.
The researchers also examined bone marrow samples taken from 19 previously infected patients approximately 7 and 11 months after infection. The researchers found COVID-19 antibodies in 15 of the 19 patients, and unlike the observed reductions in other antibodies, the antibodies produced by cells in the bone marrow appeared to be stable.
But he added that the findings did not indicate that people were infected with COVID-19. Vaccination is no longer necessary. On the other hand, vaccination can increase the natural immune response even more.
“I think people who are infected and create this beautiful memory over time. It would be a good incentive to get vaccinated. Because now you can put these memory cells to use,” Ellebedy said, adding that having antibodies doesn’t mean people. fully protected
“Our data explains why people who experienced mild SARS-CoV-2 infection last year produced impressive responses to vaccination. It’s because of the strong immune memory that developed after the infection,” Ellebedy told CNN in an email Thursday.
“however Not all previous infected people are the same,” he added. “For many reasons Some individuals do not produce a strong immune response to infection even after surviving the infection. Therefore, it is best for them to have both vaccines.”
for the same reason Either because of age or immunodeficiency. Some people may be advised to follow a different stimulant schedule in the future if boosters are eventually needed.
Up to 9 out of 10 people infected with the coronavirus develop natural immunity to the virus that “Remains with little decay” for up to 10 months after initial infection. said the study of EClinicalMedicine conducted by researchers at the Labcorp National Clinical Laboratory.
Researchers found that COVID-19 patients Approximately 90% of the recovered patients tested in the study had antibodies that were detectable within 21 days of infection. and the antibody rate remained around 90% considering some variance, up to 300 days.
Researchers analyzed data on 39,086 people who were confirmed to be infected with COVID-19. Between March 2020 and January 2021, and at least one antibody test was performed with Labcorp after a positive test result for coronavirus infection.
The data does not include patient demographics or information about the severity of specific COVID-19 cases.
CNN’s Maggie Fox, Ryan Prior and Naomi Thomas contributed to the report.